281. Generally in the front view of the face there is a strong high-light on the upper lip on the side nearest the source of light, and in this high-light you should begin to remove the blemishes and imperfections, and then proceed to carefully model this feature. Great care must be exercised not to remove the little furrow in the center of the lip. If the face has been properly lighted with a front or broad light, the modeling which is in this furrow should be retained fully, but if the light comes from the side to a great extent, it will be necessary to blend and slightly build up the shadow which will be formed in this furrow. Remember that you should never work from a shadow up into a high-light. Always blend and model from the highest point of the curve down into the deepest shadow. In this way proper roundness will be preserved and perfect modeling secured.

282. Work over onto the shadow side of the face as far as the labial furrow, and on the high-light side of the lip work down into the labial furrow, blending where you left off when retouching the cheek, using long, curved strokes which will produce a looseness and bring all of your work together. The lower lip will require similar treatment. The high-light or high-lights which may be on this feature should be blended carefully and the modeling carried down into the shadows, but do not work up on to the chin. Simply work to the shadow surrounding it. After

this has been accomplished then begin to remove the imperfections in the center of the chin and proceed to model as you have previously done, blending and working down into the deepest shadows, and continuing with the retouching of the neck. When the subject wears a collar it will not be necessary for any special work to be done on the neck, but care must be taken that too much lead is not applied, as the neck is in a much lower key of light than the chin, or even any other part of the light side of the face.

283. Note

Note. The upper and lower figures on the right-hand side of Illustrations Nos. 15 and 16 give a fair idea of the appearance of negatives when the lips and chin have been properly modeled.

284. Profile View

Profile View. In retouching the profile of the lips the greatest amount of care must be exercised in handling the outline. Follow closely the outline as shown in the negative itself, and do not in any way build it up farther than is necessary to remove the blemishes. In most cases the retouching should begin where you left off on the cheek. All will depend, however, on the location of the highest point of light, for you should begin in the high-light and work into the shadows, if proper modeling is to be secured. The lips and mouth express a great deal of character and should be worked very carefully.

285. Etching is sometimes necessary in order to alter the expression. Instruction on this will be given in a more advanced chapter. Observe the upper and lower figures on the right-hand side of Illustration No. 16. These illustrations will give you an idea of the appearance of lips and chin of profile negatives, when properly modeled.

286. When modeling it is always advisable to begin at the highest point of light, or rather the highest point of a curve. Although this matter has been spoken of a number of times, it is easy for the beginner to forget and proceed to work in a hit or miss manner; therefore, we repeat this direction and cannot too strongly urge you to follow this advice. If this one rule be followed out and always borne in mind, you will seldom experience any diffi-

culty in properly modeling and in retaining character, likeness and atmosphere.

287. Proofs

Proofs. Proofs should of course be made at each stage of the work, and used in exactly the same manner as in the preceding lessons, for there is no better way of learning the relationship between the negative and the positive, and whether or not the proper amount of work has been applied to the negative, than by making proofs frequently. In printing the proofs be sure that you print them dark enough to tint the highest points of light, as this will show the actual results of your work.