This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Unsatisfactory Results In General. In the first place, unsatisfactory results are often caused from not taking time enough to compose the picture properly. Do not hurry the exposure, for, if you aim to produce artistic effects in landscape work you must allow of sufficient time to study the various masses that go to make up the picture space. The point of view is an important factor, but it should receive less consideration than the subject itself. Before attempting to set up your camera ask yourself this question: "WHAT IS THERE IN THIS PARTICULAR VIEW THAT APPEALS TO ME, AND IS THIS SUBJECT WORTH TAKING!" With this question answered to your satisfaction, you are ready to either go ahead and set up the camera or to choose another subject.
362. If this view is a desirable one you should proceed to select the point of view from which you are to work. Continual study of this view must be made, and if for any reason it does not meet with your approval, by no means waste a plate on it. Another point is, that the lighting has a great deal to do with composition, and if the sun does not shine from the proper direction - casts shadows which, in your mind, could be improved by some other lighting - wait and see if a different time of day produces better results.
364. It is not absolutely necessary to have a shutter for landscape work, as you can use the lens cap in making the exposure. A shutter is, however, a convenient accessory. There might be times when you have a subject that, owing to its rapid motion, would require a quicker exposure than you could produce by a cap exposure.
Flatness In Landscapes. Flatness is lack of atmospheric effect in the picture. The first cause of this defect is over-exposure; the second, employing too small a stop in the lens, thus securing too much detail, and definition in distant objects. Use the lens as wide open as possible for all landscape work, having only the main objects of attraction perfectly sharp. In case your lens does not cut the plate sharp to the edges, use a small stop so that the entire plate may be covered to best advantage.
366. Careful focusing ,is one of the most important points for the landscape photographer to consider. As a general rule, the foreground is the chief point of interest, and this should receive the greatest amount of attention.
367. Flatness is also due to the bluish tinge that often exists in the air, which, after you have exposed your foreground sufficiently, will be very much over-exposed. To remedy this, use a color screen in conjunction with orthoehromatic plate, the color screen cutting out to a great extent the blue rays of light, allowing all parts of the scene included in the angle of view to receive the proper amount of exposure.