This section is from the book "Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography", by J. B. Schriever. Also available from Amazon: Complete Self-Instructing Library Of Practical Photography.
Developing or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. 247 around. When it is dark enough remove it from the bath. Act quickly, as the print grows darker each second, and the development will continue until the print is immersed in the hypo bath. Upon removing the print from the developer, dip it in fresh water (which should be in the second tray) for a second, and then place immediately in the third tray containing the acid fixing bath.
Handling Prints In The Fixing Bath. Each print, as it enters the fixing bath, should be turned over several times, that the hypo may act evenly on the entire print. After the print is thoroughly immersed, there is no danger of staining from laying in the bath until all the prints are developed. They should be handled in the fixing bath, one at a time, care being taken that air-bells do not form, as they will cause yellow stains on the prints. This stain is due to the continued action of the developer still in the emulsion, which has not been stopped by the hypo. Do not leave the prints packed together. Keep them separated, and leave them in the fixing bath for fully fifteen minutes, meanwhile moving them continually.
462. Use the left hand for handling the prints in the developer and rinse water. Use the right hand for the prints in the fixing bath and final wash water. Make this a rule, stick to it, and you will avoid much trouble.
463. Where small batches of prints are made, the hypo bath may be used continually, but do not fix more than thirty 4x5 prints in 16 ounces of hypo solution. If you attempt more than this number some of the prints are apt to be unfixed, even if allowed to remain in the bath a longer time, and they will not be permanent. This is due to the fact that sensitive salts still remain in the print, and when these are continually exposed to the light they turn brown.
464. The temperature of the fixing bath should not be above 65°, but it may be cooler. The prints can remain in the bath fifteen minutes, providing it is cool. If the bath becomes warm the acetic acid becomes more active, giving the solution a milky appearance and deteriorating it very rapidly - often producing yellow and muddy prints.
Washing The Prints. The prints should be washed, after fixing, at least one-half hour in running water, during which time they should be handled over and over. As the surface of these prints is a gelatin emulsion, they stick together as soon as they fall to the bottom of the tray and will not wash. If you are not supplied with running water the prints may be washed by hand. For this purpose two trays should be used, filling them with water, then passing the prints - one at a time - first from one tray to the other, and then refilling each tray with fresh water after all the prints have been removed. Ten changes by hand should be sufficient to remove all traces of chemicals. Prints will change color, in a very short time, when these chemicals are not removed.
466. After thorough washing the prints should be mopped off with dry blotters, and placed face down on cheese-cloth. This will prevent curling to a certain extent. If overlapped or piled upon each other they will stick together. When blotted off with non-linting blotters before laying on the cloth, they will dry much faster. To have the prints lie perfectly flat after they become surface dry, lay them between sheets of plain cardboard on a table,
WADING THE STREAM Study No. 9 - See Page 371 By John Chislett.
Developing or "Gaslight" Papers - Regular Grades. 251 under a light weight, for about ten hours or more, when they will remain perfectly flat.