574. Developers

Developers. For the beginner we would recommend the prepared solution, which is usually put up in concentrated form and requires only diluting with water, when it is ready for use. For those who prefer making up their own developer we recommend the formula accompanying the paper or the following:

575. Formula



50 ozs.


1/4 oz.


1 oz.

Sulphite of Soda (anhydrous)........

4 ozs.

Carbonate of Soda..........

6 1/4 ozs.

Note - Ortol may be substituted for metol, using the same quantity.

Dissolve the chemicals in hot water and in the order given, and let stand to cool, when it is ready for use.

576. To Develop, take 1 oz. of the above solution and add 6 ozs. of water (this is sufficient to fully cover a 5 x 7 print) ; add to this developer from 6 to 8 drops of a 10% solution of bromide of potassium.

577. Blue Tones, or blue black tones, are obtained by using the developer as above.

578. Olive Green Tones may be obtained by increasing the amount of bromide of potassium.

579. Fixing Bath

Fixing Bath.

Hyposulphite of Soda..............

4 ozs.


24 ozs.

When all crystals are thoroughly dissolved the bath is ready for use. To insure permanent results a fresh bath should be prepared for each day's work.

Blisters will sometimes appear where water of different temperatures is used, but these can usually be avoided by using a little pommon salt in the first washing water after fixing. A positive preventative will be found by using the following fixing bath in place of the plain fixing bath:


4 ozs.


32 ozs.

When dissolved, add

Metabisulphite of Potash...........

1/8 oz.


1/8 oz.

The prints should be thoroughly immersed in this bath, to insure proper hardening of the film.

581. To Develop

To Develop. Provide three trays: One you use for developing, another for fixing, and the third tray for washing the prints. Where running water from the tap cannot be had the washing tray may be used for rinsing before fixing. After exposure immerse the print in the developer, face side up. The image, if properly exposed, should begin to appear slowly and should develop up strong, clear and brilliant. (See Paragraph No. 458.) Keep the solution moving over the print, by gently rocking the tray. When the shadow portions appear black and solid - not muddy - the print is completely developed; then remove from the developer and rinse under the tap, or place in the tray of fresh water for a few moments, turning the print over several times, after which immerse in the fixing bath. The prints should remain in this bath for fifteen minutes, and handled over occasionally, by hand, to insure even fixing and also to avoid staining. After fixing, the prints should be washed for an hour in running water, or they may be washed in a tray by handling over several times in at least ten changes of fresh water.