544. Development

Development. It is necessary that the print be developed soon after printing, as there seems to be a continuous printing action. If the paper were kept for a number of hours before being developed it would flash up in the developer and show all the appearances of over-printing.

545. Developing Solutions

Developing Solutions.

I - For Cold Tones.

Hot Water...........

20 ounces


7 drams

Rochelle Salts.........

I ounce

Hot water must be used to dissolve the borax. After the borax is thoroughly dissolved, the solution should be cooled and the rochelle salts added.

II - For Warm Tones.


20 ounces

Rochelle Salts.............

1 ounce

III - Restrainer.


5 ounces

Potassium Bichromate...............

25 grains

546. The restrainer plays an important part in the process - the more used the greater will be the contrast, while the less employed the flatter will be the results. Strong prints may be secured from weak negatives, and vice versa. For an average negative use 1/2 dram of No. 3 in each 4 ounces of developer.

547. A warm black tone will be obtained on some papers by the use of No. 1, while on others it will give a fine dark sepia.

548. A warm brown tone results from use of No. 2 solution, and intermediate tones are secured by mixing solutions 1 and 2 in the proportion desired.

549. Developing

Developing. The prints may be developed by immersing them in the developing solution, but it is preferable to float them on the solution, for when the paper is quite thick and porous air-bells will give considerable trouble when the whole print is immersed. Development takes place rapidly, and when sufficient strength has been obtained the prints should be placed directly, without washing, into the clearing solution.

550. Clearing Solution

Clearing Solution. No. 2 (developer) 4 ounces; No. 3 (restrainer) 2 to 3 drams. When the print has been placed directly from the developer into the clearing solution, the dish containing the clearing bath must be rocked for a moment or two, when the prints may be left in the bath for not less than 10 minutes. If convenient to do so, no harm will be done if they remain in this bath for half an hour. After clearing, the prints should be rinsed in two changes of water and then fixed.

551. Fixing Solution.

Hyposulphite of Soda............

1 ounce

Strong Ammonia........

2 drams


20 ounces

The prints should be handled over in this bath for a period of 10 minutes, so as to remove all traces of soluble silver salts which may be left in the paper.