Where a flat trimming is desired in some styles of garments, folds may be used effectively. They are usually cut on the bias, although with narrow skirts and some parts of waists a cross-wise cutting, especially in stripes, is sometimes used. The bias folds are of several kinds:

1. Plain fold, which is cut twice the finished width. The edges are turned to the center of the fold on the wrong side. If one is skilful, no hasting is necessary here. The raw edges are held together by the stitch used for hemming velvet or may be catch-stitched. The folds are slip-stitched to the garment (Fig. 227A).

2. Milliners fold is made of bias strips cut three times the width of the finished fold. The upper edge is folded over toward the wrong side, the width desired, and the lower edge folded a little and turned upon this, beyond the center of the fold, and slip-stitched to the under side of the fold. If machine-stitching is used, the fold may be finished in this way. The folds are slip-stitched to the garment. Soft folds are sometimes made double turned in at the top and stitched to the garment, on this turned edge (Fig. 227 B).

Lined Or Stiffened Fold

Folds may be lined with a variety of materials according to the "stiffness" of the effect desired. Crinoline, silk-finished crinoline and linen canvas are the principal linings used. Cut the bias strips the finished width of the fold, and the material the same, plus the turn at top and bottom. Place crinoline on the material and baste through the center. Turn edge of material over on crinoline and catch-stitch material to crinoline, being careful not to let the stitches show on the outside. Press lightly on wrong side, slip-stitch to garment. The edges of such folds may also be piped or corded (Fig. 228).

Cording may be used in a variety of ways: To finish the edges of skirts, waists, ruffles, tunics, folds, armholes and necks of waists, and wherever shirring or gathering might be used as trimming. It is to be recommended because it admits of an invisible sewing throughout. To place the cord, use whichever one of the following methods seems most advisable:

1. Cording and Facing in One. - Place cord far enough below the edge of the material to be corded, to allow for turning over the cord, and enough to finish the edge. Keep the cord on an even line under this fold, press the thumb of the left hand close up under the cord and sew with fine running stitches. Casings may be stitched in by machine, and the cord run in afterward, but this requires utmost skill, else the casing will be too wide or too narrow. Cording attachments can be had for some machines, but unless one is doing a great deal, hand sewing is preferable. Allow sufficient material for facing and to cover cord (Fig. 229). A series of piping cords are sometimes set close together, the under edge of the first being quite wide, and after all the cords have been set in place upon this wider part, the edge of it may be turned up close to the last cord and slip-stitched to it like a fold. This makes quite a heavy trimming (Fig. 230).

Fig. 228.   Lined or stiffened fold.

Fig. 228. - Lined or stiffened fold.

2. Shirring on, Cords. - Ruffles, tops of skirts, and all sorts of narrow trimmings may be made in this way. A point to remember in shirring, is to leave the ends of thread unfastened as you sew the cord in the material, so that when you draw it up on the cords, the threads may be drawn as tight as the cord. This makes the cording more distinct. Also in making a circular design in puffing, or rounding a corner, draw the inner cord tighter than the outer (Fig. 231A). Trimmings in design or loops and frogs are sometimes made of a cord set in a close-fitting casing of silk and twisted into desired shapes. To make: Stitch a casing wide enough to admit the cord and the seam of the casing. Sew a

Fig. 229.   Cording and facing in one

Fig. 229. - Cording and facing in one bodkin to the end of the cord, and push the bodkin into the casing, then sew cord also to the end of the casing, continue to push the bodkin through the casing, which will thus be turned right side out on the cord.

Fig. 230.   Cord pipings set on a bias fold having corded edge; the edge of the fold is finished by slip stitching under the last cord.

Fig. 230. - Cord pipings set on a bias fold having corded edge; the edge of the fold is finished by slip-stitching under the last cord.

Cord finish for the bottom of skirts and ruffles: Sew the cord into material, leaving enough of the edge to be whipped down to the cord. It may be rolled in and hemmed from the wrong side, but is more difficult to secure a straight edge. Various kinds of cords may be used. Piping cord, which is hard twisted, and cable or dressmaker's cord, which is soft and loose. Wool makes an excellent cord for soft silks, especially if one wishes to stitch it on the machine without an attachment, as the wool crushes under the presser foot, but also springs back into position again.