This section is from the book "Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction", by Laura I. Baldt. Also available from Amazon: Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction.
Weaving is the process of interlacing threads by which cloth is made. Two sets of threads are used, called: 1. Warp, and 2. Woof or filling; the weaving is accomplished by a machine called a loom, of which there are two kinds, 1. Hand, and 2. Power loom.
Warp, lengthwise threads, which carry throughout the length of a piece of cloth.
Woof, or filling, the crosswise thread, carried back and forth across sets of the lengthwise threads.
Frame, which holds the Warp Beam at the back of the loom; upon the warp beam the warp threads are wound before the weaving begins and unwound as the weaving proceeds.
Two or more Heddles hung from the beam at the top of the loom frame, each heddle composed of two slats of wood between which are stretched loops of cord or wire called Healds, each one tied in the middle so as to leave a small hole or eye called the Mail Eye, through which a warp thread passes on its way to the Reed. Each heddle supports a certain set of warp threads, which may be raised or lowered by it.
Reed, a series of vertical wires in a frame set in the Batten or Lathe, which hangs from the top of the frame. Batten or Lathe, a frame of wood which hangs from the top of the loom frame, holds the reed and is used to beat the woof or filling into place.
A roller at the front of the loom upon which the woven cloth is wound up as it is made.
Treadles, strips of wood below the loom, attached to the heddles, operated by the feet to raise or lower the sets of warp threads.
Shuttle, a boat-shaped piece of wood which holds the bobbin upon which is wound the woof thread; used to pass the woof back and forth between the warp thread.
The Warp Threads, sufficient in number for the width of the cloth to be woven, and as long as the finished cloth is to be, are wound evenly on the Warp Beam; the end of each warp thread is passed through a Mail Eye or Heald, then between the wires of the Reed, the ends drawn over and fastened on the Cloth Beam. When the warp threads are passed through the heddles, if plain weaving is to be done, only two heddles will be necessary, therefore every other thread, e.g., 1, 3, 5, 7, etc., will be passed through heddle No. 1, and the alternate ones, 2, 4, 6, 8, etc., through heddle No. 2; then when the heddles are attached, each to a separate treadle, by pressing down with the foot on one treadle, all the uneven-numbered threads in the warp will be raised, and the even numbers will be depressed, thus making an opening between the sets of threads, called a Shed, through which the woof can be passed, by means of the Shuttle, containing a Bobbin or Reel of the filling yarn. When the other treadle is pressed upon, the even numbers will be raised, and the uneven drawn down, making a new shed, through which the woof is passed back again. Each time the woof is carried through it is called a Pick; the Batten or Lathe is drawn firmly forward against it, to push the pick into place; then the Shed is changed and another Pick is made.