This method is the outcome of the fact that, when the heel is raised the curve at the back crosses a fixed upright line at a lower distance from the bottom than when not raised. This rule, that the lower the heel of the boot the higher up the curve crosses the perpendicular line, and the higher the heel the lower the point of contact, enables guide lines and positions to be fixed that will assist in the formation of the standard.

Fig. 114 is a diagram illustrating the application of this rule. A forme is made from the last to he used, and laid upon the sheet of paper from which the standard is to be out. It is traced out, keeping the seat portion somewhat elevated to accommodate the height of the heel. After pencilling its shape, the substance of the forepart of the proposed boot is decided and this deducted from the probable height of heel the boot will carry when made. The remnant will be marked below the seat of the traced-out forme in a position similar to the direction in which the height of heel is to be measured. Through this point, B (Fig. 114), draw a straight line, Bec, touching the curve at the joint. Another line is made to pass from A to E, and perpendicularly to this line (AE), just touching the back of the forme, the line Afhk is drawn. This latter line is used to determine the points through which the back curve shall pass. To obtain these points, F and H are measured from A at distances varying according to the size of standard and the height of heel.

Fig. 114.

Table For ascertaining the Height oF F and H.

 H Size F adult. 1 in. heel. 1 1/4 in. heel. 1 1/2 in. heel. 1 3/4 in. heel. 1 2 13/16 4 13/16 4 9/18 4 5/16 4 1/16 2 2 7/8 4 7/8 4 5/8 4 3/8 4 1/8 3 2 15/19 4 15/16 4 11/16 4 7/16 4 3/16 4 3 5 4 3/4 4 1/2 4 1/4 5 3 1/16 5 1/16 4 13/16 4 9/16 4 5/16 6 3 1/8 5 1/8 4 7/8| 4 5/8 4 3/8 7 3 3/16 5 3/16 4 15/16 4 11/16 4 7/16 8 3 1/4 5 1/4 5 4 3/4 4 1/2 9 3 5/16 5 5/16 5 1/16 4 13/16 4 9/16 10 3 3/8 5 3/8 5 1/8 4 7/8 4 5/8

The ankle-line is drawn through H and made to equal one-half the ankle-measure. Through N a line is drawn perpendicular to the line Ceb. The heel-line is drawn, which on the average would be at an angle of 42°, and on this line one-half the heel-measure marked AM, making such allowance as is needed according to the seat of last. The height of the pattern is now marked off, and the width of the leg measured back from S to E. From F mark P, the amount of which would vary according to the substance of the material to be used to make the upper, the "give" or stretchiness, and the mode of lasting. It is averaged at 1/4 in. The pattern may be completed as illustrated by Fig. 114. The application to men's work is shown in Fig. 115.

The excessive curve produced at the back of this pattern, together with the "forward" pitch, may be remedied by substituting for the 4's pattern the measurements of 31/4, and 4| in. for F and H, and increasing or decreasing from this data.