Certain rules of procedure qualify the right of on injured party to sue for breach of promise. In laying down these rules the law seems to have had two objects in view: first, the restriction of suits to such a number as is absolutely necessary for purposes of justice and, second, the minimizing of damages to the defendant so far as is possible, without denying to the injured party compensation for the wrong which he has suffered. Accordingly there can be but one action for a single breach.12 Non-performance by one party will give rise to a cause of action as soon as there is a day's delay in performance beyond the period stipulated for in the contract, for it is fundamental that for any actual failure to do as agreed the injured party has a remedy. But if the breach is not such as will involve the non-performance of the contract altogether, the damages recovered will be calculated on the assumption that the contract will be carried out in the future ; that is they will be limited to the damage caused by breaches which had taken place at the date of the writ;13 whereas, if the breach at the time of suit has already been so serious as to involve the failure of the whole contract, damages based on the loss of the defendant's whole performance may be awarded to the plaintiff.14

Unless the contract is totally broken it is not desirable that a money equivalent should be given instead of what the - parties bargained for. It is often better that the contract should be carried out a little late or defectively rather than that the parties should be deprived of the opportunity of performance altogether and that a money equivalent should be substituted which, in the nature of the case, is more or less imperfect relief.

12 Rudder v. Price, 1 H. Bl. 547; South & North R. Co. v. Henlein, 56 Ala. 368; Leggett v. Lippincott, 50 N. J. L. 462, 14 Atl. 577; Bender-nagie v. Cocks, 19 Wend. 207, 209, 32 Am. Dec. 448; Goldberg v. Eastern Brewing Co., 136 N. Y. App. D. 692, 121 N. V. S. 465.

13 Kansas etc. R. Co. v. Curry, 6

Kan. App. 561, 51 Pac. 576; Fay v. Guynon, 131 Mass. 31; Wittenberg v. Mollyneaux, 59 Neb. 203, 80 N. W. 824; Wharton v. Winch, 140 N. Y. 287, 35 N. E. 589; Erie Ac. R. v. Johnson, 101 Pa. 555. Cf. Beach v. Crain, 2 N. Y. 86, 49 Am. Dec. 369.

14 See infra, Sec. 1317.

In case of a breach of an indivisible contract where there is not a total' breach of contract, the damages of the plaintiff will be such an amount as will compensate the plaintiff for the late or defective performance of the defendant.15 It may, however, appear subsequently that the defendant will never perform, either because of his own permanent unwillingness to do so, or because his delay is so great before he becomes willing to perform that the plaintiff is justifiably unwilling to allow him to perform thereafter. If, however, the plaintiff has already recovered, in an action on the same breach of promise, damages based on the assumption that the contract is to be carried out in the future he can bring no further action. He has already sued upon this cause of action and but one action is allowed him, although the damages he received in that action have proved inadequate compensation. Had he deferred bringing action until it appeared that a consequence of the breach of contract was that the contract would never be performed at all, not simply that its performance would be delayed, he might have recovered damages sufficient to compensate him for the total loss of the defendant's performance.

Sec.1292. Sometimes One Action Only Allowed For Several Breaches Of Contract

Sometimes, however, a contract may provide for more than one performance by a promisor. In such a case it seems the non-performance of each thing promised is a separate breach of contract rendering the promisor liable; and an action upon a breach of one promise will not necessarily involve an inability to sue subsequently on later breaches of the same contract, for the causes of action are different.16 And a promise in form single may involve several performances, and thus be in effect several promises. Such is a covenant to repair in a lease, on which repeated actions may be brought,17 or a covenant by a carrier to give free transportation for life.18

15 if the breach consists of nonpayment of a sum of money absolutely due, the statement in the text must be qualified. In such a case judgment will be given for the money due, not merely damages for delay.

16 Fay v. Guynon, 131 Mass. 31, 35; Barrie v. Earie, 143 Mass. 1, 5, 8 N. E. 639, 58 Am. Rep. 126. The common law took a distinction between debt and assumpsit in regard to the recovery of instalments. In debt on a bond or covenant to pay several sums of money at different dates, the action could not be brought until all the sums were due (though on a bond on condition to secure payment of several sums there was a breach of condition of the whole bond if the first sum was not paid). See Rudder v. Price, 1 H. Bl. 547, and cases cited. Bush v. Stowell,

After more than one breach of the same contract has occurred, however, the injured party must join in any action brought all breaches which have theretofore taken place; since to bring separate actions for each breach is unnecessarily vexatious to the defendant without giving the plaintiff any advantage.19

This rule is based on reasons of policy and has even been applied to entirely distinct bargains where they constitute a running account between the parties. Though each item of such an account must in law be regarded as a sfeparate transaction, it is frequently held that the plaintiff must bring a single action for whatever is due on the account at the time action is brought unless some good reason for a contrary course exists, on pain of forfeiting all right to items not included in the action.20 For separate contracts not constituting a running account several actions may be maintained, though all had been broken before the first action was brought, and all might have been enforced in one action.21

71 Pa. 208; Lyall v. London, 8 U. C. C. P. 365. On the other hand, in assumpsit an action lay on breach of the first instalment, ibid., and it was said "that where a man brings such an action for breach of an assumpsit upon the first day, it is best to count of damages for the entire debt, for he cannot have a new action." Reporter's note to Beck-with v. Nott, Cro. Jac. 504. These distinctions, however, have doubtless wholly disappeared, and the plaintiff now may bring a separate action for breach of each instalment, as soon as the breach takes place and recover damages for that instalment. Beecher v. Conradt, 13 N. Y. 108, 64 Am. Dec. 535; Eddy v. Davis, 116 N. Y. 247, 22 N. E. 362; Seed v. Johnston, 63 N. Y. App. Div. 340, 71 N. Y. S. 579. The qualification stated in the text, however, requiring joinder of all breaches which have occurred, must be observed.

17 Kingdon v. Nottle, 1 M. A G. 355, 365; Phelps v. New Haven Ac. Co., 43 Conn. 453; Shaffer v. Lee,

8 Barb. 420; Beach v. Crain, 2 N. Y. 86, 49 Am. Dec. 369.

18 Kansas Ac. R. v. Curry, 6 Kan. App. 561, 51 Pac. 576; Pittsburgh & R. p. Peterson, 58 Pa. Super. 44.

19 Bagot v. Williams, 3 B. & C. 235; Pinney v. Barnes, 17 Conn. 420; Casselberry v. Forquer, 27 111. 170; Indiana & R. v. Koons, 105 Ind. 507, 5 N. E. 549; Manton v. Gammon, 7 111. App. 201; Bendernagle v. Cocks, 19 Wend. 207, 32 Am. Dec. 448; Wilson v. Mechanical Orguinette Co., 170 N. Y. 542, 553, 63 N. E. 550. In Seed v. Johnston, 63 N. Y. App. Div. 340, 343, 71 N. Y. S. 579, the court said: "It is a well-established proposition of law that if a contract provides for payment by instalments, due at different times, the instalments may, of course, be successively sued on as they become payable (Wells, Res Adj. 203), but each action should include every instalment due when it is commenced, unless a suit is, at the time, pending for the recovery thereof or other special circumstances exist. Lorillard v. Clyde, 122 N. Y. 41, 25 N. E. 292, 19 Am. St. Rep. 470."

Wherever the defendant's breach of contract is substantial and material the plaintiff may sue in one action and recover damages based on the entire value of performance,22 for a consequence of the breach already committed is that the whole contract will not be performed. It may happen, however, that the injured party will prefer not to exercise his right to refuse to continue performance but rather to hold himself ready to perform the remainder of the contract and demand performance from the other party, from time to time, as it may become due. This course though it seems allowed in England is not generally allowed in this country.23 If the breach is such that the injured party may treat it as an entire breach of the contract, it seems that he must do so or, rather, that if he fails to do so he can bring no new action after the first in which he claimed and recovered damages for the partial breach only. The reason of this is that it sufficiently protects the plaintiff in that he is allowed to recover full damages, and, at the same time, it minimizes the damage of the defendant by not allowing him to be vexed with a number of separate suits.24

20 Lee v. Tannenbaum, 62 Ala. 501; Avery v. Fitch, 4 Conn. 962; Atlanta Elevator Co. v. Fulton Ac. Mills, 106 Ga. 427, 32 S. E. 641; Bobbins v. Conley, 47 Mo. App. 502 (compare Alkire Grocer Co. v. Tagert, 60 Mo. App. 380); Guernsey v. Carver, 8 Wend. 492, 24 Am. Dec. 60; Bender-nagie v. Cocks, 19 Wend. 207, 32 Am. Dee. 448. But see contra, Seddon 21 Tutop, 6 T. R. 607; Williams v. Abbott Elec Co., 134 la. 665, 112 X. W. 181, 13 L. R A. (N. S.) 529; Badger v. Titoomb, 15 Pick. 409, 26 Am. Dec. 611; Phelps v. Abbott, 116 Mich. 624, 74 N. W. 1010; Beck v. Dmreaux, 9 Neb. 109, 2 N. W. 365; McLaughlin v. Hill, 6 Vt. 20.

21 King v. Sheriff, 1 B. & Ad. 672.

22 See infra, {1317. It is not intended to intimate that a repudiation before the time for performance will give rise to an immediate cause of action. As to this, see infra, f 1305.

23 This seems necessarily to follow from the statements in cases where the defendant repudiated. See infra, Sec.1322.

24 Where there has been repudiation the question is covered by the discussion infra, Sec.1305 et seq. In regard to a case where there has been a material breach but no repudiation, the case is not so clear either on principle or on authority, but in such a case, also, it seems that the plaintiff,