97 la. 719, 59 Am. St. Rep. 434, 66 N. W. 1059; Dorr v. Alford, 111 la. 278, 82 N. W. 789; Seeley v. Seeley -Howe-Le Van Co., 128 la. 294, 103 N. W. 961; Richards v. School Township, 132 la. 612, 109 N. W. 1093.

Kansas. W. W. Kimball Co. v. Raw, 7 Kan. App. 17, 51 Ac. 789.

Kentucky. McCulloch v. Scott, 52 Ky. (13 B. Mon.) 172, 56 Am. Dec. 561; Cornett v. Kentucky River Coal Co., 175 Ky. 718, 195 S. W. 149.

Massachusetts. Stevens v. Pierce, 151 Mass. 207, 23 N. E. 1006.

Michigan. Bedier v. Reaume, 95 Mich. 518, 55 N. W. 366; Western Electric Co. v. Hart, 103 Mich. 477, 61 N. \V. 867; Holmes v. Huizenga, 160 Mich. 344 [sub nomine, Holmes v. Huizinga, 125 N. W. 419].

Minnesota. Thompson v. Libby, 36 Minn. 287, 31 N. W. 52; Crooks v. Nip-polt, 44 Minn. 239, 46 N. W. 349.

Missouri. Thiemann v. Heinze, 120 Mo. 630, 25 S. W. 533.

Montana. Brundy v. Canby, 50 Mont. 454, 148 Ac. 315.

Nebraska. Kertson v. Kertson, 77 Neb. 688, 110 N. W. 750.

Hew Mexico. Ellis v. Newbrough, 6 N. M. 181, 27 Ac. 490.

Hew York. Vernol v. Vernol, 63 N. Y. 45; People v. Stephens, 71 N. Y. 527; Schiffer v. Dietz, 83 N. Y. 300; Strong v. Strong, 102 N. Y. 69, 73, 5 N. E. 799; Pryor v. Foster, 130 N. Y. 171, 29 N. E. 123; Elliott v. Brady, 192 N. Y. 221, 18 L. R. A. (N.S.) 600, 85 N. E. 69; Saratoga, etc., Ry. Co. v. Fogg, 24 Wend. (N. Y.) 74, 35 Am. Dec. 598.

. North Carolina. Smith v. Pritchard, 173 N. Car. 720, 92 S. E. 257. Ohio. Baltimore & 0. R. Co. v. Jolly, 71 O. S. 92, 72 N. E. 888.

Oklahoma. Skinner v. Scott, 29 Okla. 364, 118 Ac. 394.

Oregon. Vaughn v. Smith, 34 Or. 54, 55 Ac. 99; Hewitt v. Andrews, 69 Or. 581,140 Ac. 437; Seeck v. Jakel, 71 Or. 35, L. R. A. 1915A, 679, 141 Ac. 211; Cooper v. Hillsboro Garden Tracts, 78 Or. 74, 152 Ac. 488; Brice v. Mt. Scott Park Cemetery Corporation, - Or. - , 178 Ac. 935.

Tennessee. Blue Springs Mining Co. v. Mcllvien, 97 Tenn. 225, 36 S. W. 1094; Precious Blood Society v. Elsythe, 102 Tenn. 40, 50 S. W. 759; Lear v. Lumber Co. (Tenn. Ch. App.), 42 S. W. 808; Kerns v. Perry (Tenn. Ch. App.), 48 S. W. 729.

Vermont. Jenness v. Simpson, 84 Vt. 127, 78 Atl. 886.

Virginia. Slothower v. Land Co. (Va.), 27 S. E. 466; Wilson v. Hundley, 96 Va. 96, 70 Am. St. Rep. 837, 30 S. E. 492; Rector, etc., v. Snyder, 100 Va. 567, 42 S. E. 337; Finch v. Garrett, 109 Va. 114, 63 S. E. 417.

West Virginia. Starchar v. Duty, 61 W, Va. 373, 123 Am. St. Rep. 990, 9 L. R. A. (N.S.) 913, 56 S. E. 524; Coff-man v Viquesney, 76 W. Va. 84, 84 S. E. 1069.

2 Blue Springs Mining Co. v. Mcllvien, 97 Tenn. 225, 36 S. W. 1094.

3 Dickson v. Fowler, 114 Md. 344, 79 Atl. 519.

4 Dennis v. Jones, 44 N. J. Eq. 513, 6 Am. St. Rep. 899, 14 Atl. 913.

5 Harrington v. Paterson, 124 Cal. 542, 57 Ac. 476.

6 Assignment of a land contract operates as ratification, if with knowledge of the facts; and, accordingly, the assignee can not avoid because of fraud on the assignor. Cooper v. Hills-boro Garden Tracts, 78 Or. 74, 152 Ac. 488.

Assignment of a mortgage may operate as ratification. Bedier v. Reaume, 95 Mich. 518, 55 N. W. 366.

7 Ruhl v. Mott, 120 Cal. 668, 53 Ac. 304; Western Electric Co. v. Hart, 103 Mich. 477, 61 N. W. 867.

8 W. W. Kimball Co. v. Raw, 7 Kan. App. 17, 51 Ac. 789; Morgan v. Now-lin, 126 Mich. 105, 85 N. W. 408.

9 Elliott v. Brady, 192 N. Y. 221, 18 L. R. A. (N.S.) 600, 85 N. E. 69.

10 Young v. Shepard's Estate, 124 Mich. 552, 83 N. W. 403; Morgan v. Nowlin, 126 Mich. 105, 85 N..W. 468.

11 Lee v. McClelland, 120 Cal. 147, 52 Ac. 300; Brown v. South Joplin Lead & Zinc Mining Co., 231 Mo. 106, 132 S. W. 693; Ott v. Pace, 43 Mont. 82, 115 Ac. 37.

12 Husted v. Insley, 94 S. W. 708 (reported without opinion in 78 Ark. 603).

13 Bowen v. Aetna Indemnity Co., 151 la. 663, 131 N.W. 1086.

14 Brown v. Brown, 142 111. 409, 32 N. E. 500; Deskins v. Dunn, 158 Ky. 172, 164 S. W. 810.

15 Starchar v. Duty, 61 W. Va. 373, 123 Am. St. Rep. 990, 9 L. R. A. (N.S.) 913, 56 S. E. 524.

16 Precious Blood Society v. Elsythe, 102 .Tenn. 40, 50 S. W. 759.

17 Vaughn v. Smith, 34 Or. 54, 55 Ac. 99.

18 Ruhl v. Mott, 120 Cal. 668, 53 Ac. 304; Burnham v. Smith, 82 Mo. App. 35.

19 United States. McLean v. Clapp, 141 U. S. 429, 35 L. ed. 804.

Iowa. Cress v. I vena, 163 la. 659, 145 N. W. 325.

Minnesota. Marshall v. Gilman, 47 Minn. 131, 49 N. W. 688.

North Dakota. Gil more v. Western Electric Co. (N. D.), 172 X. W. 111.

Oregon. Whitney v. Bissell, 75 Or. 28, 146 Ac. 141.

Tennessee. Memphis St. Ry. Co. v. Giardino, 116 Tenn. 368, 92 S. W. 856.

20 North American Dredging Co. v. Outer Harbor Dock & Wharf Co. (Cal.), 173 Ac. 756; Kertson v. Kertson, 77 Neb. 688, 110 N. W. 750.

21 Kingman v. Stoddard, 85 Fed. 740, 29 C. C. A. 413; Nounnan v. Land Co., 81 Cal. 1, 6 L. R. A. 219, 22 Ac. 515; Baltimore & Ohio R. Co. v. Jolly, 71 O. S. 92, 72 N. E. 888.

22 Baltimore & O. R. Co. v. Jolly, 71 O. S. 92, 72 N. E. 888.

23 Arzuaga v. Gonzalez, 239 Fed. 60, L. R. A. 1917D, 697; Montgomery v. McLaury, 143 Cal. 83, 76 Ac. 964; Stramel v. Hawes, 97 Kan. 120, 154 Ac. 232; Conrow v. Little, 115 N. Y. 387, 5 L. R. A. 693, 22 N. E. 346.

24 Wagner v. Magee, 130 Minn. 162, 153 N. W. 313.

amount to a ratification if done after discovery of the fraud and with full knowledge thereof. One who retains property which is sold to him under fraudulent representations and makes use thereof with full knowledge of the fraud ratifies such contract.25 If A sold goods to B by means of fraudulent representations as to their quality, B's act in keeping such goods and selling a part of them with full knowledge of the facts operates as ratification.26 If a false statement is made as to the time at which stock in a building and loan company will mature, the act of the vendor of realty which is sold in consideration of such stock, in drawing upon the building and loan company from time to time for several years after such vendor knows that such certificates have not matured at the time stated, operates as a ratification of such transaction.27 Acceptance of payments under a contract waives the right to rescind for fraud as to the value of property sold thereunder.28 If subscriptions to stock of a corporation are obtained by concealing from the subscribers the terms of a temporary agreement under which the corporation is organizing, and the subscribers after learning of the terms of such agreement fail to object and permit further action under the contract without objection, the subscribers can not thereafter avoid such subscriptions.29