The form in which such representation is made is immaterial.1 It may consist of actual false statements,2 of statements partly true, but so framed as to mislead,3 or of either words or conduct which prevent the adversary party from discovering the truth.4 If a representation is made which is to operate as a continuing representation, it amounts to fraud if the party who made such representation does not disclose to the adversary party such change of facts as cause such representation to be true no longer.5 Non-disclosure, as distinguished from active concealment, is discussed subsequently.6

1 See Sec. 217. See also ch. VII.

2 For non-disclosure, see ch. XIV. For concealment, see Sec. 284. For what facts or opinions may be the subject of such representation, see Sec. 290 et seq.

3 State Bank v. Gates, 114 la. 323, 86 N. W. 311.

4 Granger v. Providence-Washington Ins. Co., 200 Fed. 730, 119 C. C. A. 174 [reversing decree, 192 Fed. 674].

5 Ross v. Webster, 63 Conn. 24, 26 Atl. 476.

6 Equitable, etc., Go. v. Waring, 117 Ga. 599, 97 Am. St. Rep. 177, 62 L. R. A. 93, 44 S. E. 320.

1 United States. Twin Lakes Land & Water Co. v. Dohner, 242 Fed. 399, 155 C. C. A. 175.

Iowa. Watson v. Brown, 113 la. 308, 85 N. W. 28.

Maine. Atlas Shoe Co. v. Bechard, 102 Me. 197, 10 L. R. A. (N.S.) 245, 60 Atl. 390.

Michigan. Billig v. Goodrich, 199 Mich. 423, 165 N. W. 647.

Virginia. Herron v. Dibrell, 87 Va. 289, 12 S. E. 674.

2 See cases cited in Sec. 290 et seq.

3 Twin Lakes Land & Water Co. v. Dohner, 242 Fed. 399, 155 C. C. A. 175. See Sec. 312.

4 See Sec. 284.