A promise to do an act in the future may or may not be a contract for the breach of which damages can be recovered, but mere non-performance is not fraud.1 Thus a promise

13 Kelly v. Gould, 141 N. Y. 506, 36 N. E. 320.

14 Alabama. Cooke v. Cook, l00 Ala. 175, 14 So. 471.

Illinois. Day v. Ft. Scott, etc., Co., 153 111. 293, 38 N. E. 567 [affirming 53 111. App. 165].

Missouri. Davidson v. Hobson, 59 Mo. App. 130.

Nebraska. Canon v. Bank (Neb.), 91 N. W. 585.

Virginia. Watkins v. Land, etc., Co., 92 Va. 1, 22 S. E. 554; Moore v. Barkfl-dall (Va.), 25 S. E. 529.

Washington-. Washington, etc., Co. v. Newlands, 11 Wash. 212, 39 Ac. 366.

West Virginia. Buena Vista Co. v. Billmyer, 48 W. Va. 382, 37 S. E. 583.

15 Macklem v. Fales, 130 Mich. 66, 89 N. W. 581. (Future cost of making a harrow.)

16 Robinson v. Larson, 112 la. 173, 83 N. W. 900.

17 Taylor v. Bank, 174 N. Y. 181, 95 Am. St. Rep. 564, 66 N. E. 726.

18 Brown v. Pierce, 229 Mass. 44, 118 N. E. 266.

19 John D. Gruber Co. v. Smith, 195 Mich. 336, 162 N. W. 124.

20 See Sec. 222.

1 England. Jorden v. Money, 5 H. L. Cas. 185.

United States. Union Pacific Ry. Co. v. Barnes, 64 Fed. 80; White v. Ewing, 69 Fed. 451, 16 C. C. A. 296; Huber v.

Gugenheim, 80 Fed. 598 [distinguishing Telegraph Co. v. Rubber Co., 10 Ch. App. 515]; Bartol v. Walton, etc., Co., 92 Fed. 13; Farwell v. Colonial Trust Co., 147 Fed. 480, 78 C. C. A. 22; Mamaux v. Cape May Real Estate Co., 214 Fed. 757.

Alabama. Ansley v. Bank, 113 Ala. 467, 59 Am. St. Rep. 122, 21 So. 59; Stacey v. Walter, 125 Ala. 291, .28 So. 89.

Arkansas. Conoway v. Newman, 91 Ark. 324 [sub nomine: Conaway v. Newman Mill & Lumber Co., 121 S. W. 353]; Scullin v. Newman, 127 Ark. 227, 191 S. W. 922.

California. Feeney v. Howard, 79 Cal. 525, 12 Am. St. Rep. 162, 4 L. R. A. 826, 21 Ac. 984.

Colorado. Adams v. Schiffer, 11 Colo. 15, 7 Am. St. Rep. 202, 17 Ac. 21.

Delaware. Frantz v. Trust Co., 2 Penn. (Del.), 447, 47 Atl. 1000.

Florida. Harrington v. Rutherford, 38 Fla. 321, 21 So. 283.

Georgia. Chattanooga, etc., Ry. Co. v. Warthen, 98 Ga. 599, 25 S. E. 988.

Illinois. Gage v. Lewis, 68 111. 604; Haenni v. Bleisch, 146 111. 262, 34 N. E. 153; Chamberlin v. Sanders, 268 111. 41, 108 N. E. 666; Armstrong v. Lewis, 38 111. App. 164; Murray v. Smith, 42 111. App. 548.

Indiana. Fouty v. Fouty, 34 Ind. 433; Smith v. Parker, 148 Ind. 127, 45 by a mortgagee with reference to

N. E. 770; Kain v. Rinker, 1 Ind App. 86, 27 N. E. 328; State v. Carlisle, 21 Ind. App. 438, 52 N. E. 711.

Iowa. Kramer v. Messner, 101 la. 88, 60 N. W. 1142; State Bank v. Gates, 114 la. 323, 86 N. W. 311; Blaul v. Wandel, 137 la. 301, 114 N. W. 899; State Bank v. Brown, 142 la. 190, 119 N. W. 81; Kelty v. McPeake, 143 la. 567, 121 N. W. 529; Seymour v. Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Co., 181 la. 218,

164 N. W. 352.

Kansas. Slatten v. Konrath, 1 Kan. App. 636, 42 Ac. 399.

Kentucky. Iron Co. v. Ford (Ky.), 50 S. W. 27.

Maine. Long v. Woodman, 58 Me. 49.

Maryland. Buschman v. Codd, 52 Md. 202; Melville v. Gary, 76 Md. 221, 24 Atl. 604; Gaither v. Slack, 89 Md. 727, 43 Atl. 915.

Massachusetts. Langdon v. Doud, 92 Mass. (10 All.), 433; Dawe v. Morris, 149 Mass. 188, 14 Am. St. Rep. 404, 4 L. R. A. 158, 21 N. E. 313; Watson v. Silsby, 166 Mass. 57, 43 N. E. 1117; Sprague v. Kimball, 213 Mass. 380, 45 L. R. A. (N.S.) 962, 100 N. E. 622.

Michigan. Boston Piano & Music Co. v. Pontiac Clothing Co., 199 Mich. 141,

165 N. W. 856; Barker v. Finlay, 200 Mich. 166, 166 N. W. 996.

Minnesota. Slagle v. Goodnow, 45 Minn. 531, 48 N. W. 402; Bay View Land Co. v. Myers, 62 Minn. 265, 64 N. W. 816; Hodsden v. Hodsden, 69 Minn. 486, 72 N. W. 562; Bigelow v. Barnes, 121 Minn. 148, 45 L. R. A. (N.S.) 203, 140 N. W. 1032.

Mississippi. Smith v. St. Louis & San Francisco R. Co., 112 Miss. 878, 73 So. 801.

Missouri. Younger v. Hoge, 211 Mo. 444, 18 L. R. A. (N.S.) 94, 111 S. W. 20; Manheimer v. Harrington, 20 Mo. App. 297; Bullock v. Woolridge, 42 Mo. App. 356.

Nebraska. American, etc., Association v. Rainbolt, 48 Neb. 434, 67 N. W. 493; American, etc., Association v. Bear, 48 Neb. 455, 67 N. W. 500; Conn enforcing the mortgage;2 a promv. Broadhead, 51 Neb. 834, 71 N. W. 747.

New Hampshire. Syracuse Knitting Co. v. Blanchard, 69 N. H. 447, 43 Atl. 637.

New Mexico. Witt v. Cuenod, 9 N. M. 143, 50 Ac. 328.

New York. Morris v. Talcott, 96 N. Y. 100; Hotchkin v. Bank, 127 N. Y. 329, 27 N. E. 1050.

Ohio. Armstrong v. Karshner, 47 O. S. 276, 24 N. E. 897.

Oregon. Marshall v. Hillsboro Garden Tracts, 78 Or. 89, 152 Ac. 493; Henrickson v. Hillsboro Garden Tracts, 78 Or. 96, 152 Ac. 495; Fleming v. Gerlinger Motor car Co 86 Or. 195, 15ft Ac. 1153, 168 Ac.

Rhode Island. Lyons v. Briggs, 14 R. I. 222, 51 Am. Rep. 372; Swift v. Rounds, 19 R. I. 527, 61 Am. St. Rep. 791, 33 L. R. A. 561, 35 Atl. 45.

Tennessee. Farrar v. Bridges, 22 Tenn. (3 Humph.), 566.

Texas. Chicago, etc., Ry. Co. v. Titterington, 84 Tex. 218, 31 Am. St. Rep. 39, 19 S. W. 472.

Vermont. Redington v. Roberts, 25 Vt. 686; Jude v. Woodburn, 27 Vt. 415; Allen v. Hodge, 51 Vt. 392.

Virginia. Orr v. Goodloe, 93 Va. 263, 24 S. E. 1014; Anderson v. Land Co., 96 Va. 257, 31 S. E. 82.

Washington. Gardner v. Frederick, 96 Wash. 324, 165 Ac. 85; Fryar T. Hazelwood Holstein Farms, 97 Wash. 78, 165 Ac. 1084.

West Virginia. Love v. Teter, 24 W. Va. 741.

Wisconsin. Sheldon v. Davidson, 85 Wis. 138, 55 N. W. 161; Tufts v. Wein-feld, 88 Wis. 647, 60 N. W. 992; Fromer, etc., Co. v. Stanley, 95 Wis. 56, 69 N. W. 820; Seymour v. Cushway, 100 Wis. 580, 69 Am. St. Rep. 957, 76 N. W. 769; Milwaukee, etc., Co. v. Schok-necht, 108 Wis. 457, 84 N. W. 838; James Music Co. v. Bridge, 134 Wis. 510, 114 N. W. 1108.

2Gaither v. Slack. 89 Md. 727, 43 Atl. 915; Bay View Land Co. v. Myers, ise by a grantee as to paying for3 or improving the property conveyed;4 a promise by a land company to grade streets and construct waterworks;5 a promise that a bridge will be built and a hotel erected,6 or that a street-car line will be extended past the property sold;7 a verbal agreement to form a partnership to buy standing timber, unenforceable under the statute of frauds;8 a promise not to compete in business;9 a promise that the buyer of certain stone will not use it in performing a contract which the seller has failed to secure on competitive bidding;10 a promise to secure to the purchaser of certain stock the position of secretary and treasurer in such corporation at a certain salary;11 that stock which was not yet issued would be fully paid up, and non-assessable;12 as to the way in which a corporation would do business, whereby persons were induced to subscribe to its stock;13 a statement by the vendor's agent that the vendee could return the goods if on inspection they proved unsatisfactory, the written contract containing no such provision;14 that the buyer would countermand an outstanding order if the seller would sell him certain goods;15 a statement by one who contracts to accept and pay for advertising within certain maximum and minimum amounts that he will take much more advertising than the minimum;16 that the set of law books which was the subject of the sale would be published as long as a certain other set was published;17 a promise to marry the grantor, by which he is induced to convey certain realty to the grantee, the marriage subsequently taking place, and the grantee living with the grantor until a quarrel a few months later;18 a promise to give employment, as an inducement to a contract of compromise of a claim for personal injuries;19 a promise to furnish a certificate with the cattle which were sold, showing that they had been tuberculin tested;20 a promise to secure special contracts for the use of a jitney bus if the purchaser did not find that its operation as a carrier was profitable;21 a promise not to assign a note;22 or to support the adversary party,23 refer solely to the future, and though broken, can not be fraud.