Fraud may be committed by making false statements to a commercial agency for communication to those applying for information,1 or by referring others to an agency for a report, where, though such person made no false statement of his financial condition to the agency, he knows that the agency rates him too high.2 But an erroneous report of an agency can not be considered the fraud of one who neither made the representations on which such report is based, nor gave such agency as his reference.3 The omission of a corporation to change its statement made to a financial agency is not fraud as to one who without the knowledge of such corporation relies on

12 Hindman v. First National Bank, 112 Fed. 931, 50 C. C. A. 623, 57 L. R. A. 108; Hunnewell v. Duxbury, 154 Mass. 286, 13 L. R. A. 733, 28 N. E. 267; Webb v. Rockefeller, 195 Mo. 67, 6 L. R. A. (N.S.) 872, 93 S. W. 772.

1 United States. Fechheimer v. Baum, 37 Fed. 167, 2 L. R. A. 153; In re Epstein, 109 Fed. 874; Davis v. Louisville Trust Co., 181 Fed. 10, 104 C. C. A. 24, 30 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1011.

Colorado. Nicholls v. McShane, 16 Colo. App. 165, 64 Ac. 375.

Connecticut Soper Lumber Co. v. Harmount Co., 73 Conn. 547, 48 Atl. 425.

Illinois. Moyer v. Lederer, 50 111. App. 94.

Iowa. Cox Shoe Mfg. Co. v. Adams, 105 la. 402, 75 N. W. 316.

Michigan. Genesee County Savings Bank v. Barge Co., 52 Mich. 164, 17 N. W. 790; Mooney v. Davis, 75 Mich. 118, 13 Am. St. Rep. 425, 42 N. W. 802; Cortland Mfg. Co. v. Platt, 83 Mich. 419, 47 N. W. 330; Friebee v. dickering, 115 Mich. 185, 73 N. W. 112.

Minnesota. Stevens v. Ludlum, 46 Minn. 160, 24 Am. St. Rep. 210, 13 L. R. A. 270, 48 N. W. 771; Charles the statement of such agency.4 The fact that the person who is deceived was not a subscriber to the mercantile agency, but obtained his information through another person who was a subscriber, does not prevent him from treating such false representation as fraud.

P. Kellogg Co. v. Holm, 82 Minn. 416, 85 N. W. 159.

Montana. John V. Farwefl Co. v. Boyce, 17 Mont. 83, 42 Ac. 98.

Nebraska. Poska v. Stearns, 56 Neb. 541, 71 Am. St. Rep. 688, 42 L. R A. 427, 76 N. W. 1078.

New York. Eaton, etc., Co. v. Avery, 83 N. Y. 31, 38 Am. Rep. 389; Tindle v. Birkett, 171 N. Y. 520, 89 Am. St. Rep. 822, 64 N. E. 210.

Ohio. Wilmot v. Lyon, 49 O. S. 296, 34 N. E. 720 [affirming, 11 Ohio C. C. 238, 7 Ohio C. D. 394].

Pennsylvania. Sharpless v. Gum-mey, 166 Pa. St. 199, 30 Atl. 1127.

Texas. Avery v. Dickson (Tex. Civ. App.), 49 S. W. 662.

Utah. Belleville Pump, etc., Works v. Samuelson, 16 Utah 234, 52 Ac. 282.

2 P. Cox Shoe Mfg. Co. v. Adams, 105 la. 402, 75 N. W. 316; Hiller v. Ellis, 72 Miss. 701, 41 L. R. A. 707, 18 So. 95.

3 P. Cox Shoe Mfg. Co. v. Adams, 105 la. 402, 75 N. W. 316; Sprague, etc., Co. v. Kempe, 74 Minn. 465, 77 N. W. 412; Hiller v. Ellis, 72 Miss. 701, 41 L. R. A. 707, 18 So. 95; Bennett v. Rubber Co., 54 Neb. 553, 74 N. W. 821.