Actual violence may undoubtedly constitute duress.1 Thus where a husband compelled his wife to sign articles of separation by knocking her down and kicking her, such articles were decreed void.2 So where one is compelled to execute an instrument or make a contract by mob violence,3 or by violence of robbers,4 or by reason of an assault with a deadly weapon,5 duress exists. In some of these cases, however, the actual violence is ignored in the pleadings of the parties and the opinion of the court and the ground for the decisions is said to be duress per minas.6

9 Callendar Savings Bank v. Loos, 142 la. 1, 120 N. W. 317. For a discussion of the different theories of duress by the court, without committing itself to either theory, see Wood v. Kansas City Home Telephone Co., 223 Mo. 637, 123 S. W. 6.

10Sulzner v. Cappeau-Lemley, etc., Co., 234 Pa. St. 162, 83 Atl. 103.

11Whitt v. Blount, 124 Ga. 671, 53 S. E. 205.

12Whitt v. Blount, 124 Ga. 67l, 53 S. E. 205.

1 Kentucky. Stewart v. Stewart, 30 Ky. (7 J. J. Mar.) 183, 23 Am. Dec. 306.

Montana. Rossiter v. Loeber, 18 Mont. 372, 45 Pac. 560.

South Dakota. Bueter v. Bueter, 1 S. D. 94, 8 L.R.A. 562, 45 N. W. 208.

Texas. Dimmitt v. Robbins, 74 Tex. 441, 12 S. W. 94.

Wisconsin. Magoon v. Reber, 76 Wis. 392, 45 N. W. 112.

2 Bueter v. Bueter, 1 S. D. 94, 8 L. R. A. 562, 45 N. W. 208.

3 Rossiter v. Loeber, 18 Mont. 372, 45 Pac. 560; Doolittle v. McCullough, 7 O. S. 299; Brown v. Peck, 2 Wis. 261.

4Dimmitt v. Bobbins, 74 Tex. 441, 12 S. W. 94.

5Stewart v. Stewart, 30 Ky. (7 J. J. Mar.) 183, 23 Am. Dec. 396; Magoon v. Reber, 76 Wis. 392, 45 N. W. 112.

6See Brown v. Peck, 2 Wis. 261.