In policies of life insurance, provisions are frequently found to the effect that such policy shall not include liability in case the insured is executed by the authority of the law for the commission of a crime;1 and such exception has been said to be implied in every policy of life insurance if no specific provision is made therefor.2 Provisions are frequently found to the effect that the insurer is not to be liable in case the insured meets his death in violation of the law;3 and such provision is regarded as applying to a case in which the insured was killed by one upon whom he was committing an unprovoked assault of such character as to justify killing in self-defense.4 Such policies frequently contain exceptions in case of death from other specified causes,5 such as death from tuberculosis,6 or death resulting from the voluntary use of intoxicating liquor,7 or death resulting from voluntary exposure to unnecessary danger.8 Provisions of this sort are occasionally so worded as to amount to true conditions,9 as where it is provided in express terms that the policy of insurance shall become void if the insured shall use intoxicating liquors to excess habitually, or shall engage in other specified habits injurious to his health.10 Since such a provision may operate automatically as a termination of all rights under the policy,11 and since it is not intended merely to prevent the insurance company from incurring liability in case of loss due to such conduct on the part of the insured, it is a condition and not an exception. Whether a condition attaches to a single covenant of a contract or to all the covenants, depends upon the intention of the parties.12 A provision for paying a certain amount to the purchaser of stock, if dividends equaling such amount are not declared annually, and for repurchasing such stock at the election of the owner in case such dividends are not declared, will be regarded as binding the promisor to pay such dividend for the time for which the corporation failed to pay it upon such stock, and also to repurchase such stock.13 The promisor can not escape his obligation to repurchase the stock by paying such dividends.14

Indiana. Red Men's Fraternal Accident Association v. Rippey, 181 Ind. 454, 50 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1006, 103 N. E. 345.

Iowa. McDermott v. Hawkeye Commercial Men's Association, 158 Ia. 544, 139 N. W. 472.

Massachusetts. Noyes v. Commercial Travelers' Eastern Accident Association, 190 Mass. 171, 70 N. E. 065.

Minnesota. Lockway v. Modern Woodmen, 121 Minn. 170, 141 N. W. 1.

North Carolina. Scarborough v. American Nat. Ins. Co., 171 N. Car. 353, 88 S. E. 482.

Vermont. Bianchi v. Montpelier & W. R. R. Co., - Vt. - , 104 Atl. 144.

2 See 8 2583.

3 United States. Burt v. Union Central Life Ins. Co., 187 U. S. 362, 47 L.

ed. 216 (exception implied by construction); Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. McCue, 223 U. S. 234, 56 L. ed. 419.

Indiana. Red Men's Fraternal Accident. Association v. Rippey, 181 Ind. 454, 50 L. R. A. (N,S.) 1006, 103 N. E. 345.

Iowa. McDermott v. Hawkeye Com-mencial Men's Association, 158 Ia. 544, 139 N. W. 472.

Massachusetts. Noyes v. Commercial Travelers' Eastern Accident Association, 190 Mass. 171, 76 N. E. 665.

Minnesota. Lockway v. Modern Woodmen, 121 Minn. 170, 141 N. W. 1.

North Carolina. Scarborough v. American Nat. Ins. Co., 171 N. Car. 353, 88 S. E. 482.

1 Burt v. Union Central Life Ins. Co., 187 U. S. 362, 47 L. ed. 216 (condition implied by construction); Scarborough v. American Nat. Ins. Co., 171 N. Car. 353, 88 S. . 482.

2 Northwestern Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. McCue, 223 U. S. 234, 50 L. ed. 419.

3 American National Life Ins. Co. v. White, 126 Ark. 483, 101 S. W. 25; Bosler v. Modern Woodmen of America, 100 Neb. 570, L. R. A. 1917C, 195, 160 N. W. 966; Baker v. Supreme Lodge, '103 Miss. 374, 60 S. W. 333.

4 Bosler v. Modern Woodmen of America. 100 Neb. 570, L. R. A. 1917C, 195, 160 N. W. 966.

5 Red Men's Fraternal Accident Association v. Rippey, 181 Ind. 454, 50 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1006, 103 N. E. 345; McDermott v. Hawkeye Commercial Men's Association, 158 Ia. 544, 139 N. W. 472; Noyes v. Commercial Travelers' Eastern Accident Association, 190 Mass. 171, 76 N. E. 665; Lockway v.

Modern Woodmen, 121 Minn. 170, 141 N. W. 1.

6 Red Men's Fraternal Accident Association v. Rippey, 181 Ind. 454, 50 L. R. A. (N.S.) 1006, 103 N. E. 345.

7 McDermott v. Hawkeye Commercial Men's Association, 158 Ia. 544, 139 N. W. 472; Lockway v. Modern Woodmen, 121 Minn. 170, 141 N. W. 1.

8 Noyes v. Commercial Travelers' Eastern Accident Association, 190 Mass. 171, 76 N. E. 665.

9 Aetna Life Ins. Co. v. Davey, 123 U. S. 739, 31 L. ed. 315; Modern Wood-men v. Breckenridge, 75 Kan. 373, 10 L. R. A. (N.S.) -136, 89 Pac. 661.

10 Aetna Life Ins. Co. v. Davey, 123 U. S. 739, 31 L. ed. 315; Modern Woodmen v. Breckenridge, 75 Kan. 373, 10 L. R. A. (N.S.) 130, 89 Pac. 001.

11 Modern Woodmen v. Breckenridge, 75 Kan. 373, 10 L. R. A. (N.S.) 136, SO Pac. 661.