This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
Spring Lake, N. J. - Ten miles south of Long Branch, on the Atlantic Coast. In addition to picturesque seaside scenery, it boasts of pleasant fields, groves, orchards, and the beautiful little lake from which it derives its name. Fish ing, boating and the kindred enjoyments of outdoor, cottage and hotel life abound.
Swampscott, Mass. - This favorite resort of Bostonians is 1 mile beyond the village of Lynn. It has three sea-beaches, and picturesque headlands, elegant villas, safe and excellent bathing, and is everywhere indicative of wealth and fashion. In a business point of veiw it has a large trade in fresh fish - principally cod and haddock-caught in the vicinity by residents, and forwarded to market.
Sweet Chalybeate Springs, W. V».-A predominance of carbonic acid in these waters, which have a temperature of 73 degrees, causes them to produce a peculiar effect (misnamed sweet) upon the palate when swallowed; and as a remedy for mephitic disorders they have acquired a celebrity that renders this resort a very attractive one.
Trenton Falls, N. Y. - Seventeen miles from Utica, Oneida County, where Kanata Creek, within a distance of 2 miles, descends. in 6 cataracts, 312 feet. One of the six (High Falls) leaps over a precipice 40 feet high. The scenery is romantically beautiful, and delights numerous visitors.
Washington, D. C. - The District of Columbia, the Federal Territory of the Nation, originally contained 100 square miles, but part of the grounds were afterward surrendered to Virginia; its present size is 64 square miles. Washington City is 4% miles long by 3 3/4 miles at its greatest breadth. Its location is on the eastern bank of the Potomac River, 16% miles from its mouth, and 184% miles from the sea. Georgetown, a suburb of Washington, was laid out in 1751, but the location of the Federal Capital was not decided until 1790. The plan of the city was drawn by Major L'Enfant, a French officer, under the supervision of President Washington. The first public sale of lots was held Oct. 17, 1791, but the city grew very slowly. The transfer of the government from Philadelphia to Washington was made in October, 1800. The government then consisted of only 54 persons. The great city was a mere hamlet, and most of its houses were small huts. But it soon began to increase in population at the rate of 800 souls a year. August 24, 1814, the British invaded the capital, burned all the government buildings, and destroyed a large number of the public records, inflicting a loss estimated at $1,000,000. During Monroe's administration the city took upon it a new growth, and many important improvements were made. The reconstruction of the Capitol was begun in 1815, and finished in 1827. Its site covered 1% acres; its length was 352 feet; height of main edifice, 70 feet; to top of dome, 145 feet; cost, $2,433,814. The corner-stone of the subsequent enlargement was laid July 4, 1851, and the work was finished in 1867. The material is white marble tinged with blue, with 100 columns. Its entire length is 751% feet; its greatest breadth, with steps and porticoes, is 348 feet; total area of its site, more than 3% acres. Each wing is 142 2/3 feet long, and 238 2/3 feet wide. The height inside of the dome is 180 feet; total height of dome, 287 1/3 feet; the statue of Freedom by Crawford, on the top of the dome, is 19 1/2 feet high. The dome was 9 years building, and cost $ 1,250,000. The total cost of the Capitol - new and old - was nearly 813,000,000. The Capitol grounds contain 46 acres, well supplied with trees. The Senate Chamber is 113% feet long and 80% feet wide. The Hall of Representatives is 139 feet long and 93 feet wide. The Supreme Court room is semicircular, 45 feet high, and 75 feet long. The old Hall of Representatives, now Statuary Hall, is also semicircular, 57 feet high and 96 feet long. The Library of Congress, main room, is 91% feet long, 34 feet wide and 38 feet high; the two annex rooms (wings) are each 90% feet long, 29% feet wide, and 38 feet high. At the main entrance to the Capitol is a gigantic allegorical group of figures, designed by John Quincy Adams, entitled "The Genius of America." It represents Liberty, Justice and Hope, in sandstone, by Persico, and cost $1,500; beside the entrance doors, in niches, are large statues, also by Persico, wrought in Italian marble, of War and Peace, which cost $12,000. Above the door, in stone, by Capellano, is a laurel-crowned bust of Washington. The "Discovery of America" is one of two great groups in marble, on the grand portico, executed by Persico, representing Columbus in armor and an Indian maiden. Near by is another huge group, by Greenough, called " Civilization," representing an American pioneer, his wife and child, attacked by an Indian. The two groups cost $48,000. On this portico the oath of office was administered to new Presidents of the United States, from Jackson to Cleveland. The nine panels of the great bronze door, by Randolph Rogers, at the main entrance (the rotunda) exhibit in sculpture the following scenes: " Examination of Columbus by the Council of Salamanca;" "Columbus' Departure from the Convent, on going to Court;" "The Audience at the Court of Spain;" "Starting of Columbus on his First Voyage;" "First Landing at San Salvador;" " First Encounter with the Indians;" "Triumphal Arrival of Columbus at Barcelona;" "Columbus in Chains,"and "Death of Columbus." Along the sides, and at the top of the door, and between the panels, are small statues (16) representing the cotemporaries of Columbus and (10) of his historians; on the transom a bust of Columbus above the American Eagle. This door was cast in Munich, by F. Von Muller, is 19 feet high, 9 feet wide, weighs 20,000 lbs, and cost $30,000. The Senate portico is adorned with a group in marble, representing " American Civilization and the Decadence of the Indian Races," designed by Thos. Crawford, containing many figures, and costing $50,000. "History and Justice" form the group over the Senate door. At the entrance of the Senate extension is a bronze door, designed by Crawford and cast by J. T. Ames at Chicopee, which cost nearly $57,000. It contains varied scenes in the American Revolutionary War and our early national history. The statue of Freedom, surmounting the dome, modeled by Crawford, weighs 14,985 lbs., and cost nearly $25,000. Greenough's giant statue of Washington seated in a Roman chair, fronting the central portico, executed in Italy, about 1840, cost more than $40,000. The Naval Monument, in commemoration of members of the navy who fell in the Rebellion of 1861-5, seated at the foot of Capitol Hill, is 44 feet high, of pure Italian marble, with a granite pedestal, from which flows a fountain of water. Statues of "America and Peace," and others, of "Victory and Peace," with images of heathen gods and agricultural implements and products, form the attending ornamental groups. The rotunda and dome, charming in themselves, are rich in historical and allegorical paintings. That of "The Apotheosis of Washington," by Brumidi, on the canopy, cost $39,500, and is a remarkably fine work of art. The eight historical paintings set in panels around the rotunda, each being 12 by 18 feet square, are by various artists, and cost $74,000. Over the paintings are bas relief designs of heads, in medallion, of Columbus, Sir Walter Raleigh, Cabot and LaSalle, costing, in all, $9,500. The four oblong panels over the doors of the rotunda, cut in stone, represent well-known scenes in American early history. They are by various sculptors, and cost $14,000. The frescoes in the sunken space encircling the rotunda, which is 9 feet wide, were executed by Brumidi and Castigini. In Statuary Hall, under the arch, are figures of Liberty surmounting a spread eagle. Over the entrance is a marble statue of History recording events in a winged car, the wheel of the car forming a clock dial. This is called "Franzoni's Historical Clock." In accordance with a resolution of Congress, each State has been invited to contribute the statues of two of her prominent citizens, in marble or bronze, to this hall. The response has been quite unanimous, and Rhode Island sent figures of Roger Williams and Gen. Greene; Connecticut, Jonathan Trumbull and Roger Sherman; New York, Geo. Clinton and Rob't R. Livingston; Massachusetts, JohnWinthrop and Samuel Adams; Vermont, Ethan Allen and Jacob Collamer; Maine, Wm. King; Pennsylvania, Rob't Fulton, and Ohio, Jas. A. Garfield - all fine specimens of sculpture. Vinnie Ream contributes her statue of Lincoln, and there is plaster model of Houdon's Washington at Richmond. The Library of Congress contains 550,000 volumes, and more than 100.000 pamphlets. Its value is immense. The President's Mansion (or White House) is 170 feet long and 86 feet wide, occupying grounds containing about 75 acres, 20 of which are improved; it is 1% miles west of the Capitol. Altogether it has cost the Government probably $400,000. The State, War and Navy Department Building, without its steps and projections, is 471 feet long, 253 feet wide and 128 feet high; with steps and projections, it is 567 feet long and 342 feet wide. Its cost was $12,000,000. The Department of the Interior Building (often called the Patent Office) is 453 feet long, 331 feet wide and 75 feet high. It cost $2,700,000. The General Post-Office is a finely designed marble edifice, two stories high, 300 feet long and 204 feet wide, and containing 85 apartments. It cost the Government nearly $2,000,000. In the United States there are about 48,000 post-offices; 67,000 persons in post office employ, and the annual revenue is more than $45,000,000. The Department of Agriculture Building is of brick, with stone trimmings, 170 feet long and 61 feet wide and 3 stories high. It cost $140,000. Connected with it is the Government Botanical Garden, valuable and luxurious with more than 2.000 varieties of plants and flowers, besides trees and fruits. The plant-houses, of glass and iron, are nearly 400 feet long, and filled with choice tropical and other plants. Over 2,000,000 packages of seeds and nearly 70,000 plants are here distributed annually to sections best adapted to them. In the building is a library of 10,000 agricultural books, and a fine museum of agricultural productions and thousands of plants, minerals and various woods. The Treasury Building is constructed of freestone, on Pennsylvania Avenue. It was completed in 1841, and improved in 1855-69, with granite from Maine. Its length is 460 feet, its breadth, 264 feet, and porticoes and columns adorn its fronts. It has three stories and a basement, and has cost over $7,000,000. The Government Printing Office is a four-story brick edifice, employing from 2,500 to 3,000 persons, running over 100 presses, and costs nearly $3,000,000 annually for expenses. Every process known in the arts of printing and binding is adopted in its operations. The Smithsonian Institution, named after its English founder, James Smithson, is an educational college. In his will he bequeathed for its benefit $515,169. It is in the control of Congress. The corner-stone was laid in 1847 and the building was completed in 1856, at a cost of $450,000. Its grounds contain 52 acres, laid out as a public park. The total length of the main building is 426 feet. Its liberal endowment enables it to devote $70,000 per annum to investigations. The National Museum, founded by the government, forms a part of the institution, and is rich in natural and scientific curiosities. There are many other public and private buildings, of considerable interest, and the city abounds in parks and public squares. Many of these are adorned with costly statuary, as follows: Dupont Circle - Set apart for a statue of Admiral Dupont. Thomas Circle - Equestrian statue of Gen. George H. Thomas; erected by Army of Cumberland Society; modeled by J. Q. A. Ward; 16 feet high; cost, with pedestal and lamp-posts, $79,000. Washington Circle - Equestrian statue of Washington, in old-style military costume, by Clark Mills; erected by Congress; cost, $50,000. Judiciary Square (19 acres) - Pension Building, District Court House, and Lot Flannery's full length statue of Lincoln, surmounting a marble column. Greene Square (3 1/2 acres) - Equestrian statue of Gen. Nath'l Greene, by H. K. Browne; 33 1/2 feet high; cost, with pedestal, $50,000. Lincoln Square (6 acres) - Bronze Group, " Emancipation," representing Lincoln, with the Emancipation Proclamation, protecting a crouching slave, whose fetters are broken; designed by Thos. Ball, and cast at Munich, Bavaria; cost $17,000, contributed by freed negroes at the South. Rawlins Square - Bronze statue of Gen. Jno. A. Rawlins, Sec'y of War under Grant, by J. Bailey; height, with pedestal, 20 feet; cost, $10,000. McPherson Square - Equestrian statue of Gen. Jas. B. McPher-son, by Jas. T. Robisso; erected by Army of the Tennessee Society, from cannon donated by Congress; figure, 14 feet high; cost, $23,500; with pedestal, $48,500. Farragut Square (about 1 acre) - Bronze statue of Admiral Farragut, by Vinnie Ream; metal taken from Farragut's ship, the Hartford;30 feet high; cost, $20,000. Scott Square (1 acre) - Equestrian statue of Gen. Winfield Scott, by H. K. Browne; cast from cannon captured in Mexico; 29 feet high; cost, $45,000. Lafayette Square (7 acres) - Equestrian statue of Andrew Jackson, by Clark Mills; erected, 1853; made from cannon captured by Jackson; cost, $50,000. On the Senate staircases are Hiram Powers' statue of Franklin, costing $10,000; Powell's painting of Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, costing $25,000; Stone's statue of John Hancock, costing $5,550, and Walker's painting of "The Storming of Chapul-tepec," costing $6,000. At the staircase of the Representatives' Hall are Powers' statue of Jefferson, in marble, costing $10,000, and Carpenter's painting of " Lincoln Signing the Emancipation Proclamation," costing $25,000. In the Representatives' Hall are Bierstadt's two paintings of " Settlement of California" and " Discovery of the Hudson River," costing, together, $20,000. The city contains 6,111 acres; has 100 streets and 20 avenues, of which Pennsylvania Ave. and Massachusetts Ave. are each 4 1/2 miles long. Total population over 200,000, including about 20,000 Government employes. Washington Monument occupies a space of 20 acres; its corner-stone was laid in 1848, and the structure was finished in 1884; its foundation is 80 feet square, set in solid rock; the base is 55 feet square; at the top it is about 30 feet square; total height, 555 feet; built of gran ite and marble; cost about $1,200,000. Long Bridge, over the Potomac River, is one mile long.