Who May And Who May Not Vote

ALL PERSONS born in the United States, and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed; all children born out of the limits and jurisdiction of the United States, whose fathers were or may be at the time of their birth citizens thereof, and any woman who is now or may hereafter be married to a citizen of the United States, and who might herself be lawfully naturalized, are deemed citizens of the United States; but the native born son of a foreign subject, residing in the United States, must be naturalized.

Rights Of Citizens In Foreign Countries

All naturalized citizens of the United States, while in foreign countries, are entitled to and receive from this Government the same protection of persons and property which is accorded to native-born citizens; and it is the duty of the President, whenever an American citizen is unjustly deprived of his liberty by any foreign government, to demand the reason for his imprisonment, and, if his imprisonment is unjust or in violation of the rights of American citizens, to demand his release; should this demand be refused or unreasonably delayed, the President may take measures (not amounting to acts of war) to have him released, communicating all facts and proceedings relative to the case to Congress, as soon as practicable. After that, any invasion of the rights of any such American citizen by a foreign government is a reasonable ground for diplomatic adjustment or a declaration of war by the United States.

Military Force Not Allowed At Elections

The laws of the United States forbid any naval or military officer to bring any armed troops to places of election, general or special, unless it be to repel armed enemies of the United States, or to keep peace at the polls; and no military or naval officer is permitted to prescribe or fix, or attempt to prescribe or fix, by proclamation, order, or otherwise, the qualifications of voters in any State, or in any manner interfere with the freedom of any election in any State, or with the exercise of the free right of suffrage therein.

The laws also provide that neither "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" can affect the rights of citizens to vote, and prescribe penalties for refusing to let citizens vote lawfully, for wrongfully refusing to receive a lawful vote at an election, and for unlawfully hindering a person from voting.

Supervisors Of Election

In order to correct any abuses of this sort, it is decreed that on the application of any two citizens in any city or town of more than 20,000 inhabits ants, or whenever in any county or parish, in any Congressional district, ten citizens of good standing, previous to any registration of voters for an election for Representatives or Delegate in Congress, or previous to any election at which such Representative or Delegate is to be voted for, may make known in writing to the judge of the United States circuit court, in that circuit, their desires to have such registration or election, or both, guarded and scrutinized, the judge, within not less than ten days prior to the registration or election, as the case may be, is required to open the circuit court at the most convenient point in his circuit. He then proceeds to appoint and commission, from day to day and from time to time, under his hand and the seal of his court, two citizens, residents of the city, town, election district or voting precinct of the town, city, county and parish, who shall be of different political parties, and able to read and write the English language; and these citizens shall be known and designated as "supervisors of election." Any circuit judge may appoint a United States district judge to perform this duty for him, in case he is unable to perform it himself.

What Supervisors Of Election Shall Do

The supervisors of election, so appointed, are authorized and required to attend, at all times and places fixed for the registration of legal voters, and challenge any person offering to register; to attend at all times and places when the names of registered voters may be marked for challenge, and to cause such names registered to be, as they deem proper, so marked; to make, when required, the lists of persons whose right to register and vote is claimed and verify the same; and upon any occasion, and at any time when in attendance upon the duty here noted, to personally inspect and scrutinize such registry, and for purposes of identification to sign their names to each page of the original list and of each copy of any such list of registered voters, at such time when any name may be received or registered, and in such a manner as will, in their judgment, detect and expose improper removal or addition of any name therefrom or thereto.

The Duty To Challenge Votes

The supervisors of election are authorized at all times and places for holding elections of Representatives or Delegates in Congress, and for counting the votes cast at such elections to challenge any such vote offered by any person whose legal qualifications the supervisors, or either of them, may doubt; to be and remain where the ballot-boxes are kept at all times after the polls are open until every vote cast at such time and place has been counted, the canvass of all votes polled wholly completed, and the proper and requisite returns or certificates made, as required by any State, Territorial, municipal or Federal law; and to personally inspect and scrutinize, from time to time, and at all times, on the day of election, the manner in which the voting is done, and the way and method in which the poll-books, registry-lists, and tallies or check-books are kept.

In order that each candidate for Delegate or Representative in Congress may obtain the benefit of every vote cast for him, the supervisors of election are, and each of them is, required to personally scrutinize, count and canvass each ballot cast in their election district or voting pre-cinct, whatever the indorsement on the ballot, or in whatever box it may have been placed or is found; to make and forward to the officer known as chief supervisor such certificates and returns of all such ballots as such officer may direct and require, and to certify on all registry lists any statement as to the truth or accuracy of the lists or to the truth or fairness of the election and canvass, that they deem honest and proper to be made, in order that the facts may become known.