TYPOGRAPHICAL MARKS

## Exemplified

Though several differing opinions exist as to the individual by whom the art of printing was first discovered, yet all authorities concur in admitting PETER SCHOEFFER to be the person who invented cast metal types, having learned the art of cutting the letters from the Gutenbergs: he is also supposed to have been the first who engraved on copper-plates. The following testimony is preserved in the family, by Jo. Fred. Faustus, of Ascheffenburg:

'Peter Schoeffer, of Gernsheim, perceiving his master Faust's design, and being himself ardently desirous to improve the art, found out (by the good providence of God) the method of cutting (incidendi) the characters in a matrix, that the letters might easily be singly cast, instead of being cut. He privately cut matrices for the whole alphabet: and when he showed his master the letters cast from these matrices, Faust was so pleased with the contrivance, that he promised Peter to give him his only daughter Christina in marriage, a promise which he soon after performed. But there were as many difficulties at first with these letters, as there had been before with wooden ones, the metal being too soft to support the force of the impression: but this defect was soon remedied, by mixing the metal with a substance which sufficiently hardened it.'

## Explanation Of The Corrections

MACKELLAR'S American Printer gives the following rules for correcting proof which will be found of convenience to all who write for the press : A wrong letter in a word is noted by drawing a short perpendicular line through it, and making another short line in the margin, behind which the right letter is placed. (See No. I.) In this manner whole words are corrected, by drawing a line across the wrong word and making the right one in the margin opposite.

A turned letter is noted by drawing a line through it, and writing the mark No. 2 in the margin.

If letters or words require to be altered from one character to another, a parallel line or lines must be made underneath the word or letter, - viz. for capitals, three lines; small capitals, two lines; and Italics, one line; and, in the margin opposite the line where the alteration occurs, Caps, Small Caps, or Ital. must be written. (See No. 3.)

When letters or words are set double, or are required to be taken out, a line is drawn through the superfluous word or letter, and the mark No. 4 placed opposite in the margin.

Where the punctuation requires to be altered, the correct point, marked in the margin, should be encircled.

## Typographical Marks Illustrated

When a space is omitted between two words or letters which should be separated, a caret must be made where the separation ought to be, and the sign No. 6 placed opposite in the margin.

No. 7 describes the manner in which the hyphen and ellipsis line are marked.

When a letter has been omitted, a caret is put at the place of omission, and the letter marked as No. 8.

Where letters that should be joined are separated, or where a line is too widely spaced, the mark No. 9 must be placed under them, and the correction denoted by the marks in the margin.

Where a new paragraph is required, a quadrangle is drawn in the margin, and a caret placed at the beginning of the sentence. (See No. 10.)

No. II shows the way in which the apostrophe, inverted commas, the star and other references, and superior letters and figures, are marked.

Where two words are transposed, a line is drawn over one word and below the other, and the mark No. 12 placed in the margin; but where several words require to be transposed, their right order is signified by a figure placed over each word, and the mark No. 12 in the margin.

Where words have been struck out, that have afterward been approved of, dots should be marked under them, and Stet. written in the margin. (See No. 13.)

Where a space sticks up between two words, a horizontal line is drawn under it, and the mark No. 14 placed opposite, in the margin.

Where several words have been left out, they are transcribed at the bottom of the page, and a line drawn from the place of omission to the written words (see No 15); but if the omitted matter is too extensive to be copied at the foot of the page, Out, see copy, is written in the margin, and the missing lines are enclosed between brackets, and the word Out, is inserted in the margin of the copy.

Where letters stand crooked, they are noted by a line (see No. 16); but, where a page hangs, lines are drawn across the entire part affected.

When a smaller or larger letter, of a different font, is improperly introduced into the page, it is noted by the mark No. 17, which signifies wrong font.

If a paragraph is improperly made, a line is drawn from the broken-off matter to the next paragraph, and No written in the margin. (See No. 18.)

Where a word has been left out or is to be added, a caret must be made in the place where it should come in, and the word written in the margin. (See No. 19.)

Where a faulty letter appears, it is marked by making a cross under it, and placing a similar one in the margin (see No. 20); though some prefer to draw a perpendicular line through it, as in the case of a wrong letter.

## Marks Used In Correcting Proof

Turn letter.

Take out; expunge.

The caret shows where the letter or word is omitted.

Insert space. Less space.

Close up entirely.

i

Remove type, and insert a space, in place of what is removed. Take out type, and close up.

Push down space.

Plane down a letter.

No paragraph.

Placed under erased words, restores them.

Written in the margin, restores a cancelled word or words that have dots under them.

Begin a paragraph.

Letters stand crooked.

Should be a compound word.

Remove to the left.

Remove to the right.

Carry higher up on page.

Carry down.

Three lines, beneath writing, denote capitals.

Two lines, beneath writing, denote small capitals.

One line, beneath writing, denotes italics.

Wrong font type.

Transpose letters, words or sentences.

Lower case, or small letters.

Small capitals.

Period.

Colon.

Calls attention to some doubtful word or sentence.