This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
Hospital stewards are either enlisted for that position, or appointed from the enlisted men in the army, and are permanently attached to the medical corps, under the regulations of the Secretary of War. There is one hospital steward for each military post; and they are graded as of the first, second and third classes. The first class receive $30 a month, the second $22, and the third $20. Hospital matrons in post or regimental hospitals receive $10 a month, and female nurses in general hospitals, 40 cents a day; but one military ration, or its equivalent, is allowed to each. Women are employed as matrons and nurses in post or regimental hospitals in such numbers as may be necessary, and as nurses in general or permanent hospitals at such times and in such numbers as the Surgeon-General or the medical officer in charge of any such hospital deems proper.
The pay department of the army consists of one Paymaster-General, with the rank of colonel, two Assistant Paymasters-General, with the rank of colonel of cavalry, two Deputy Paymasters-General, with the rank of lieutenant of cavalry, and sixty Paymasters, with the rank of major of cavalry. Officers of the pay department are not entitled, by virtue of their rank, to command in the line or in other staff corps. When volunteers or militia are called into the service of the United States, and the officers in the pay department are not deemed by the President sufficient for the punctual payment of the troops, he may appoint and add to such corps as many paymasters, called additional paymasters, ranking as majors (not exceeding one for every two regiments of volunteers or militia) as he may deem necessary; but these additional paymasters may only be retained in service so long as they are required to perform the special duty for which they are appointed. Pay masters and additional paymasters are allowed a capable non-commissioned officer or private as a clerk. If suitable persons for this office cannot be found in the army, they are authorized, with the approval of the Secretary of War, to employ citizens as clerks, at a salary of $1,200 a year.
The Paymaster-General performs his duties under the direction of the President. The army is paid in such a manner that the arrears shall at no time exceed two months, unless circumstances render further arrears unavoidable. The Deputy Paymasters-General, in addition to paying troops, superintend the payment of armies in the field. The paymasters and additional paymasters pay the regular troops and all other troops in the service of the United States, when required to do so by order of the President.
The chief signal officer is of high rank in the army, with a corps of seven or more first lieutenants as acting signal officers, one scientific professor, and assistants, besides si* inspectors ranking as first and second lieutenants. The work is divided into several divisions, each in charge of a proper officer, as follows: General correspondence - in charge of letters and records; property and disbursing - in charge of supplies and accounts; station - for instructing observers; telegraph - in charge of army telegraph lines; indications - issues weather warning, etc.; weather review and international bulletin; scientific and study; instruction; printing; instrument and ob-servatory.
The Bureau of Military Justice consists of one Judge Advocate-General, with the rank of Brigadier-General, and one Assistant Judge Advocate-General, with the rank of colonel of cavalry. It is the duty of the Judge Advocate-General to receive, revise and cause to be recorded the proceedings of all courts-martial, courts of inquiry and military commissions, and perform such other duties as have been prescribed for that office, from time to time, by the laws of the country.
There are eight Judge Advocates of the army, holding the rank of major of cavalry. They perform their duties under the direction of the Judge Advocate-General, and preside over courts-martial, courts of inquiry, etc.; have power to issue a like process to compel witnesses to appear and testify which courts of criminal jurisdiction within the State, Territory or district where such military courts are held may lawfully issue, and have power to appoint a reporter, who records the proceedings of such court and the testimony taken before it, and sets down the same, in the first instance, in short-hand writing. The reporter, before entering upon this duty is sworn, or makes affirmation, faithfully to perform the same.
In the army, promotions of officers to higher grades in the service are regulated by law. In time of war, the President may confer commissions by brevet (giving a higher rank and title, without increase of pay) upon commissioned officers of the army for distinguished conduct and public service in presence of the enemy. Such commissions bear date from the particular action or service for which the brevet rank was conferred. Such officers may be assigned to duty or command according to their brevet rank by a special assignment of the President; but brevet rank does not entitle an officer to precedence or command, except when so assigned, nor is he entitled to wear, while on duty, any uniform other than that of his actual rank, nor to be addressed in orders or official communications by any title other than that of his actual rank. Military Cadets.
When any cadet (student) of the United States Military Academy at West Point has gone through its classes and received a regular degree from the academical staff, he is considered a candidate for a commission in any portion of the army for whose duties he may be deemed competent. But should there be no vacancy then existing in such corps, he may be brevetted as a supernumerary officer, with the rank of second lieutenant, until a vacancy occurs.