Right of Way. - Miners have the right of way across any claim when hauling quartz.

Liability of Stockholders. - Stockholders are liable only for debt to the amount of unpaid stock held by them.

Number to Form Company. - Any three or more persons can form a company for tunnel, ditch or mining purposes.

Alkaline 'Waters. - A few drops of lemon juice will remove the alkali from water, which otherwise is hurtful for miners to drink.

Caution. - Miners in high altitudes should be protected with warm woolen garments, extra clothing in case of sudden changes, and material to keep themselves dry.

Sizes In Feet. - Forty-three thousand five hundred and sixty square feet equal one acre of land. A square, 208 71-100 feet in length and width contains one acre.

Water Rights. - Water may be brought across any claim, road, ditch or other mining improvement, provided it is so guarded that it does not interfere with the prior rights of another.

Annual Assessment of Placer Claims. - The law requires that $12 worth of work shall be done each year on a placer claim of 20 acres or under, and $100 worth on a 160 acre tract, in order to hold it.

Amount of Land in Placer Claims. - In locating a placer (that is surface, or loose dirt) claim, the amount of land is limited to 20 acres to one person. An association of eight persons may locate 160 acres.

Things that Seldom Happen. - That a miner given to strong drink ever goes back rich to his old home; that a miner that gambles ever saves any money; that a miner that attempts to get rich by dishonesty ever permanently prospers.

Cooking. - Boiling provisions in the high altitudes requires thrice the time that it does in the lower regions.

Duration of Charter. - The term of existence of a mining tunnel, ditch or mining company cannot exceed twenty years.

Cannot Mine Under Another. - No miner has a right to mine under the improvements of another, except by legal permission.

Test for Copper. - Immerse ore in hot vinegar; remove and expose to the air. If green or blue appears on its surface, it contains copper.

Must he a Citizen. - To secure claims from government the miner must be a citizen of the United States, or have legally declared his intention to become such.

Where Law is Found. - A copy of the laws relating to mining in each district will be found at the office of the county clerk in the district where the mine is located.

Penalty for False Weights. - Any person using scales that improperly weigh gold dust or other commodity for others is subject to a fine of $500 and imprisonment for six months.

Penalty for Destroying Claim Marks. - Any person who shall destroy or remove location stakes, except on abandoned property, shall be liable to a fine of 81,000 and one year's imprisonment.

Penalty for Taking Another's Claim. - The person jumping a claim owned by another, and gaining the same by threats or violence, shall be liable to a fine of 8250 and imprisonment in the county jail six months.

Amount of Land for Mill Sites. - The United States law allows five acres to be taken as a claim for a mill site, but the site must not be upon known mineral lands. Sometimes the district regulations restrict the amount to much less dimensions.


Test for Silver. - To a quantity of ore add one-third the quantity of salt. Reduce to a powder, and bake in a clay-pipe bowl. Cool and add a little water, heat again and stir. Insert a piece of bright copper, and it will become coated if any silver is present.

Penalty for Misrepresenting. - Any person engaged in milling, sampling, reducing, shipping or purchasing ores, who shall knowingly change the true value of the same, whereby the owner of such ore shall not obtain its true value, shall be liable to a fine of $1,000 and one year's imprisonment.

Principal Points in Locating a Claim. - When locating a claim the certificate of such location should contain the name of the lode, name of the locators, date of location, description such as will clearly identify the claim, and the requisite amount of land, not to exceed the amount allowed by the district rules of the locality.

Testing for Gold. - In certain kinds of quartz gold is readily distinguished. In others, though present, it cannot be seen. Of the numerous ways of discovering it, scientific and otherwise, one of the simplest is to grind the ore fine, place in a cup, and add water. Stir well, and pour off the top water. Add more ore and repeat. In time, gold, if there be any, will appear. A further test is to add a little mercury to the sediment, and heat in an iron spoon. The mercury evaporates, and gold, if there is any, appears. If still unsatisfied, add a small quantity of lead to the metal left in the spoon and melt together. Place the compound in nitric acid, and the gold, undissolved, will show itself when rubbed with a polished instrument.

Values and Weights of Gold and Silver. - A pound of silver is worth about $13.11. A pound of gold is worth $248.04. Gold is almost twice as heavy as silver, as shown in the fact that a cubic foot of gold weighs 1,203, while a cubic foot of silver weighs 625 pounds. A ton of gold is worth $602,799, and a ton of silver is worth $37,704. When the teamster has a load of pure gold which weighs 3,685 pounds avoirdupois, he has $1,000,000; but while one team could draw this, it would require over thirty teams to draw the same value in silver, allowing nearly two tons to the team, as it takes 58,929 pounds of silver to make $1,000,000. Since 1793 California has produced up to June 30, 1881, $709,624,000 of gold, and Nevada, in the same length of time, yielded $77,435,000 in silver. Among the people in the United States there are about $470,000,000 of gold in circulation and $181,000,000 of silver, making about $12 in specie to each man, woman and child in the country. The largest nugget of gold on record was found in the Ballarat Diggings, Victoria, Australia, in 1858. It weighed 2.166 ounces, and was sold for $41,580. Silver bullion fluctuates in value. At the present writing, in 1883, it is worth $1.09 1/4 per ounce. Gold bullion has remained at the same value for many years, being worth $20.67 per ounce.

Penalty for Putting Foreign Ore in a Claim. - "Salting" a claim, that is, taking ore from another mine and placing it in the one that is to be sold, thereby deceiving the purchaser, is punishable by a fine of $1,000 and confinement in the State-prison fourteen years.

Gold Nuggets Found in Montana. - A nugget of gold found on the claim of Deitrick & Brother, in. Rocker Gulch, sold for $1,800. One found in Nelson Gulch, in 1865, brought $2,073; and another taken out of Snowshoe Gulch, in 1865, weighed fourteen pounds and ten ounces troy, and sold for $3,200.

Penalty for False Count. - The superintendent, manager or owner of a quartz-mill, mill-furnace or cupel, engaged in extracting ore, who shall neglect or refuse to account for and pay to the owner of the quartz or mineral all sums which shall be due, except such as maybe retained for services, shall be liable to a fine of $1,000 and imprisonment not exceeding one year.

Number of Feet that Make Acres. - A claim 2,640 by 2,640 feet contains 160 acres. A claim 1,320 by 1,320 feet contains 40 acres. A claim 933 1/8 by 933 1/3 feet contains 20 acres. A claim 800 by 1,089 feet contains 20 acres. A claim 1,320 by 660 feet contains 20 acres. A claim 660 by 660 feet contains 10 acres. A claim 500 by 500 feet contains 5 73-100 acres. A claim 660 by 330 feet contains five acres.

Camp Outfit. - Pomeroy's "Mining Manual" gives the following as a suitable camp outfit for three persons: One tent, two or more woolen blankets each; one rubber blanket each; two pairs of rubber boots with high tops, for wading streams; one folding camp-table; three folding camp-stools; one iron frying-pan; one bake-oven; one granite coffee-pot; six granite plates; six granite cups; two granite kettles; one granite bucket; six tin spoons (three large and three small), three knives and three forks; one butcher-knife; one coffee-mill; needles, thread and buttons; can-opener, cork-screw, fishing-hooks and lines; one field-glass, for examining inaccessible mountain formations; one pocket-lens; one pocket-compass; one tape-line; one axe; two prospecting-picks; one drilling-hammer, and sledge; two long-handled shovels; one driller's spoon; three drills of Jessop's steel, one eighteen inches, one twenty-six inches, and one thirty-six inches long; five pounds giant powder; one box of caps and necessary fuse; one blow-pipe, soda, candles, charcoal, coffee, tea, sugar, flour, corn meal, onions, bacon or ham, dried apples, dried beef, pepper, salt, condensed milk, beans, dried peas, crackers, cheese, soap, molasses, baking-powder, all the canned goods that may be suited to the liking of the prospectors, the necessary means of protecting life from danger, and an equipment for testing ores.