This section is from the book "Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: A Guide To Correct Writing", by Thos. E. Hill. Also available from Amazon: Hill's Manual Of Social And Business Forms: The How-To-Do-Everything Book Of Victorian America.
AS MEN began to multiply upon the earth, the uses of language increased and assumed new expressions in accordance with the desires and needs of individuals. Thus, affection required one tone of voice and one collection of words and phrases especially-adapted to its communications. The voice of petition gave utterance to another class of tones and sentences expressive of its wishes. Anger, and fear, and hope, and every sentiment common to humanity, each found a rhetoric of its own, of such a distinctive character that it could not be easily mistaken for another. The cry of grief, the exultation of joy, differed then, as now, as widely as the East from the West, and the ear conveyed to the brain the peculiar sound of each. By-and-bye, when savage-life gave way to civilization, new sentiments were born, and nature and custom have given language to all. In the calm home-life the voice is modulated
Fig. I. - Careless,.
Fig. 2. - Orderly,.
Self-poised, genteelly dressed, and has large influence with his auditors, because of fine personal presence, though he may lack the genius that makes the finished orator.
to sweetness and the earnestness of true confidence. In the school, in the various trades and occupations of men, in the halls of legislation, in the courts, on the platform, in the pulpit, and in the drama, nature and art have established utterances greatly diversified. Language has thus become a power in our human existence, and on the lips of the orator can sway the nations, as the winds awaken and arouse the sleeping ocean.
The human voice has been created an instrument in which are united the melody of the flute, the violin and the organ. The lungs supply the air, and the throat and nostrils serve as pipes for the construction of sweet sounds, producing tunes and all the changes of expression required by every consonant and vowel, and by every varying sentiment. So perfect is this arrangement for the formation of language, that rapid speakers are enabled to pronounce from 7,000 to 7,500 words an hour, or about two words in a second.
The art of correct and impressive speaking embraces elocution, oratory, eloquence, rhetoric, emotion, feeling, agitation, and logic, or the power of demonstration.
Oratory is the highest degree of elocution, and is the art of presenting a subject in its most effective and eloquent manner.
Eloquence is the expression of a great degree of emotion, whether pleasurable or sad, with such earnestness and skill as to excite a similar emotion in the breasts of the audience. With fervency and fluency it utters the most elevating thoughts in the choicest language, and with the most appropriate and graceful movements of the entire physical organization.
Rhetoric is the art of framing correct, forceful and elegant sentences, either in writing or speaking, and these may, on the lips of an acknowledged orator, supply the place of genuine emotion. Rhetoric may thus become an artificial eloquence, conveying powerful sentiments which the speaker may not feel in his heart. A true actor on the stage, or platform, may become so perfect in the rhetoric of his performance as to represent the most varied and strongest emotions of human nature without experiencing them.