The making and using of maps is a good camping activity, involving compass work, cross-country travel, and exploration. These are basic campcraft activities, especially good for older campers. Map making is a good group project, beginning with simple sketch maps used for trails or explorations, or for giving simple directions, and extending to the making of detailed maps of the area. In the craft realm, such maps may be developed into pictorial maps, relief maps, or three-dimensional maps, or maps may be enlarged for use in orienteering or cross-country going.
Details on how to make sketch maps or more extensive maps will be found in The Scout Field Book, Explorer Manual, Group Fun, By Map and Compass,, and similar books. This chapter will present map making from an arts and crafts point of view. For field use, a map must be very legible, accurate, and detailed, but for decorative use there is freedom in developing the map, using the basic scale and dimensions.
Any map should tell a story of a place, indicating direc-
TOOLS and EQUIPMENT USED in MAP MAKING
PLATE. XX tions, distances or scale, designed to help the observer to find his way in the specific place. There are sketch maps, usually very simple in scope, surveyed maps, more detailed and accurate, topographical maps that show contours of hills and land levels, aerial photographic maps, and maps for specific purposes, such as road maps, city maps, or maps of the historical background of an area.
Every map should have a section that tells about that particular map. This is called the legend, and contains information about the map: the name of the map (what it covers), the scale of the map (how much distance one inch covers on the map), a direction arrow (indicating where North is on the map, so it can be oriented), any special signs used in making the map (called map signs), the date, and the maker's name. Even the simplest maps must have these items so that the person looking at the map can use it accurately (Fig. XX-1).
In making any map, plan the size the map is to be; block it in on paper for center position; plan a place for the legend.
Pictorial maps are maps drawn to scale, but with the map signs and symbols enlarged and out of proportion to the scale, highlighting such features. In making a camp map, the tents, buildings, campfire site, waterfront, and trails will stand out from the map to show the general layout. Front and side views of buildings are generally .better than top views, though the general appearance is of a view from the air. This type of map is used for camp booklets and folders, for postcards, and for wall decorations. The method calls for free-hand sketching, with much imagination in the use of the traditional camp symbols and background.
When a specific part of a larger map is wanted, one area can be enlarged or "blown up" by the grid system. A road map or a topographical map or a handmade map may be used as the base.
Equipment and materials needed: drawing board; T-square and triangle; pencil and ruler; paper for map.
1. With a T-square and triangle, mark off the area to be enlarged on original map. Mark this area into "grids" or squares (Fig. XX-3 a) horizontally and vertically.
2. On paper tor enlarged map, plan position of map, with legend, and in pencil draw line for bottom edge of map. Mark off places for squares, the same number as are on the area marked on original map, but in proportion desired. That is, if squares on original map are one inch, squares on enlarged map may be two inches, four inches, etc.
3. Draw the left vertical line on enlargement, and mark squares in similar fashion. Finish off the other two sides, and mark the grids on enlargement. (Measure and mark carefully.) Mark the grids on both maps with letters across the top and numbers on the sides (Fig. XX-3).
4. Sketch the features of the original map on the enlargement, being guided by the lines within the smaller grids (Fig. X-3 6).
5. Ink in the features on the enlarged map, and when ink is dry, erase pencil marks.
6. Finish map with legend.
Another way to reproduce a map, in part or as a whole, is to trace it. A road map, topographical map, or aerial photography may be used. This is often the basis for a pictorial map.
Equipment and materials needed: drawing board; T-square, ruler, triangle; masking tape; H and 4B pencils (hard and very soft); tracing paper; paper for map; map to be traced; carbon paper (if desired, use graphite type).
1. Fasten map or photograph to be traced to drawing board with masking tape. Mark off area to be traced, if whole map is not to be used.
2. Fasten tracing paper over map or photograph with masking tape (Fig. XX-4 a).
3. With hard pencil, trace the features that will appear on the new map, such as rivers, trails, places of interest (Fig. XX-4 a).
4. Remove tracing paper and check to be sure all features are recorded clearly. Replace carefully and add, if necessary.
5. Remove original map, and place tracing paper on drawing board. With T-square and triangle, draw the boundaries of the map (Fig. XX-4 b).
6. Turn tracing paper over, and with soft pencil shade over the lines that will be placed on new map. It is not necessary to cover the areas that are blank (Fig. XX-4 c).
7. Hold tracing paper up to light, to see if all lines have been covered. Add, if necessary.
8. Fasten map paper to drawing board, and fasten tracing paper in place on map paper, being careful to arrange margins, centering, place for legend, etc.
9. With well-sharpened hard pencil, go over all lines on tracing paper, using even pressure. (Keep pencil sharp.)
10. Remove masking tape at two corners, and look to see if all lines have been traced. If not, complete tracing.
11. Remove tracing paper and go over the lines on new map with India ink and pen. Draw in any buildings, map signs, etc., that are desired, and put in legend. (See pictorial maps, above.)
12. Carbon paper may be used instead of steps 6 and 7; the carbon paper is slipped under the tracing paper and the tracing is done as above.
Suggestions for reproduction: if the map is to be reproduced by photostat or other processes, ink the tracing. Blueprints may be made from the tracing, also, but the black lines will appear white on the print.
If the map is to be reproduced by mimeographing, ink the tracing, or go over the lines with a soft pencil, then slip the tracing under the mimeograph stencil for a second tracing on the stencil.