Water Colors 31

N this branch of fine art we will avoid all preliminary remarks in regard to its advantages, and direct you at once to the method of treating it, in as clear and comprehensible a manner as possible, and at the same time omit nothing that will in any way facilitate the progress of the learner.


Arrange the paper for the painting, after sponging it, by stretching upon a drawing board, and then turn to the mixing of the colors.

Colors Used for Skies and Distances. For blue of sky. - Cobalt Blue, lowered with Fink Madder and Gamboge, to the hue required. Ochre may be substituted for Gamboge.

Clouds. - The same mixed so as to form a variety of warm and cool pearly greys.

For Extreme Distance. - Cobalt and Venetian Red. For Local Tints. - Blend the colors so that the tints produced may incline toward yellow, red, or any tint required.

For Middle Tints, use Indigo, Pink Madder and Ochre on the same principle for the light parts, and Indigo, Pink Madder and Gamboge for shady portions.

Setting Sun, - Use Yellow Ochre and Pink Madder, or Venetian Red and Yellow Ochre; sometimes Vermilion and Gamboge or Indian Yellow in small proportions, when a strong effect is to be given.

Trees. - In painting trees use Indigo, Burnt Sienna and Gamboge, These colors will make tints for the light; Indigo mixed with Vandyke Brown becomes a fine deep grey, of a green hue. Purple Lake may be added when you want the tint more neutral.

Foreground. - Green in foreground is made by mixing Sepia with Olive Green in the shade, and Olive Green and Burnt Sienna in the lighter parts. A light transparent yellow, raw Sienna or Italian Pink may be carried over the foreground where herbage is to be represented, when a bright sunny effect is desirable to give fullness and richness to the colors that come afterward; it also answers for high lights upon leaves, and the brilliant specks which are left sharp. Indigo, Indian Bed and Ochre for the ashy grey of loam; Burnt Umber alone, or mixed with Burnt Sienna, pure Ochre, and Ochre mixed with Sepia alone, and mixed with Purple Lake for dark parts; also, Vandyke Brown and Purple Lake, or pure Brown Madder for very dark touches.

Indigo, mixed with Gamboge, makes a cold green well suited to dark leaves; Purple Lake may be added for cool reflected lights; Indian Bed mixed with Indigo to a pale tint for willow leaves or foliage stained with dirt, or for the grey back of a leaf.

These cold greys and greens are of great value in foregrounds to repeat the cool greys and cold lights of the sky in pictures composed of much warm color in the middle distance, as midday effects, sunsets, etc. The foreground should show a great deal of relief, distinctness and accuracy in the drawing of these small objects which are particularly marked, but are merged into masses when further removed. With regard to roads in your painting, Yellow Ochre, mixed with Burnt Sienna, and lowered with Indian Bed and Indigo. Indigo and Brown Madder being transparent colors, will allow a wash of Cobalt Blue and Pink Madder to alter the hue without danger of opacity.

Water. - The same as for clouds, blended with the local color of the water (greenish) and with the reflected objects.

Dark Sea is indicated by combining Indigo, Vandyke Brown and Lake.

Dark Sky. - Indigo, mixed with Pink Madder and Gamboge.

In Brick Work. - Mix Ochre with French Blue and Indian Red, Indigo and Venetian Red, Ochre and Pink Madder for bright part of brick work. When the color is more of red, Vermilion may be used, with caution, and in small quantities for lights. For shades, mix Sepia and Purple Lake, or Sepia and Indian Red; Sepia alone is used for light shadows from trees.

We will now paint a landscape, the foreground composed of rocks lying near and dividing a stream of water from a road ; the margin of the river skirted by trees; beyond a range of hills, and still beyond another range of mountains with high points extending above all else; cattle standing at the foot; flock of sheep coming along the road, cottage, etc.

Direction. Cover the entire surface of your board with a tint of Yellow Ochre of moderate strength; when this is dry a tint is formed from the mixture of Cobalt Blue and Pink Madder, the blue predominating; use it in a very diluted state, on the side whence the sun is supposed to shine, graduating the tint as the opposite part of the sky is approached, so that the ether may appear of a clear and rather strong color; the lights of the cloud to be left, and care to be taken to diminish the strength of the tint in the lower part of the sky. The same tint may be carried over the mountains, leaving small, brilliant lights if there be any.

A wash of Pink Madder and Ochre, or Venetian Bed and Ochre may be given to the lights on the clouds, afterwards they may receive their middle tint, composed of Pink Madder, Yellow Ochre and Cobalt Blue,

The Clouds may be finished by shading with Cobalt Blue and Venetian Red; the water should receive its tints at this time; any very bright lights should be left. Clouds that are darker than the ether, lay on with Venetian Red and Ochre. If the clouds are meant to show lighter than the blue of the sky, they should be left. Mix in one dish Ochre and Pink Madder with more strength than the sky tints; and in another Cobalt, Pink Madder and Gamboge, with as much strength as possible, so that it will work freely. Having the brush charged with the first paint, proceed to lay in the light parts of the mountains, varying the color by the addition of Cobalt Blue where a greenish line is wanted, Pink Madder where the granite prevails. Now, with a brush filled from the other saucer, lay in the shady parts, varying the colors. These opposite tints of light and shade should be made to blend imperceptibly where they meet. Indigo, Pink Madder and Gamboge, mixed, will be found useful for dark touches in shadows, and Cobalt mixed with Indian Red may be used for the same purpose in the lights.