### Shaping

After the metal has been heated it is shaped with the hammer. This shaping may consist of drawing, upsetting or bending. In drawing a bar of iron it is made longer and of a smaller diameter. Upsetting consists of shortening the bar with a corresponding increase of diameter. This work is usually done with a helper using a sledge hammer; the smith using a light hand hammer. They strike alternate blows. The helper must watch the point upon which the smith strikes and strike in the same place. Where two helpers are employed the smith strikes after each man. A blow on the anvil by the smith is a signal to stop striking.

### Finishing

As the hammer usually marks the metal, it is customary to leave the metal a little full and finish by the use of flatters and swages. This applies to work that has been shaped under the sledge. Light work can be dressed smoothly, and the hammer can be made to obliterate its own marks.

Wrought iron is now rolled in so great a variety of shapes that almost any desired form can be obtained direct from the mills. The more common forms are flat, round and square. These are rolled in a great range of sizes. Besides these three there are half-round, hexagonal, etc. The table on page 23 gives the corresponding weights per foot of length for flat bars.

In the table on page 24 is given the weights for each foot of length of round and square bars.

When using the table on page 23 toascertain the weight of any size of flat iron per foot of length, look in the first column at the left for the thickness. Then follow out in a horizontal line to the column giving the width. The number given will bo the weight in pounds of one foot of the desired size.

## Weights Of Round And Square Rolled Iron. Length, 12 Inches

 Thickness of Weight of square weight of round bar one foot long 0 1/16 .013 .010 ⅛ .052 .041 3/16 .117 .092 ¼ .208 .164 5/16 .326 .256 ⅜ .469 .368 7/16 .638 .501 ½ .833 .654 9/16 1.055 .828 ⅝ 1.302 1.023 11/16 l.576 l.237 ¾ 1.875 1.473 13/16 2.201 1.728 ⅞ 2.552 2.004 15/16 2.930 2.301 1 3.333 2.618 1/16 3.763 2.955 ⅛ 4.219 3.313 3/16 4.701 3.692 ¼ 5.208 4.091 5/16 5.742 4.510 ⅜ 6.302 4.950 7/16 6.888 5.410 ⅛ 7.500 5.890 916 8.138 6.392 ⅝ 8.802 6.913 11/16 9 .492 7.455 ¾ 10.21 8.018 13/16 10.95 8.601 ⅞ 11.72 9.204 15/16 12.51 2 13.33 10.47 1/16 14.18 11.14 ⅛ 15.05 11.82 13/16 15.95 12.53 ¼ 16.88 13.25 5/16 17.83 14.00 ⅜ 18.80 14.77 7/16 19.80 15.55 ½ 20.83 16.36 9/16 21.89 17.19 ⅛ 22.97 18.04
 Thickness of.Diameter in inches. Weight of square bar one foot long. Weight of 11/I6 24.08 18.91 ¾ 25.21 19.80 13/16 26.37 20.71 7/8 27.55 21. 64 15/16 28.76 22.59 3 30.00 23.56 1/16 31.26 24.55 1/8 32.55 25.57 3/16 33.87 26.60 ¼ 35.21 27.65 5/16 36.58 28.73 ⅛ 37.97 29.82 7/16 39.39 30.94 ½ 40.83 32.07 9/16 42.30 33.23 ⅝ 43.80 34.40.21 11/16 45. 33 35.60 ¼ 46.88 36.82 13/16 48.45 38.05 7/8 50.05 39.31 15/16 51.68 40.59 4 53.33 41.89 1/16 55.01 43.21 1/8 56.72 44.55 3/16 58.45 45.91 ¼ 60.21 47.29 5/16 61.99 48.69 1/8 63.80 50.11 7/16 65.64 51.55 ⅛ 67.50 53.01 9/16 69.39 54.50 5/8 71.30 56.00 11/16 73.24 57.52 ¼ 75.21 59.07 13/16 77.20 60.63 7/8 79.22 62.22 15/16 81.26 63.82 5 83.33 65.45 1/16 85.43 67.10 ⅛ 87.55 68.76 3/16 89.70 70.45 ¼ 91.88 72.16 5/16 94.08 73.89
 Thickness of Diameter in inches. Weight of square bar one foot long. Weight of round bar one foot long. 3/8 96.30 75.64 7/16 98.55 77.40 ½ 100.8 79.19 9/16 103.1 81.00 5/8 105.5 82.83 11/16 107.8 84.69 ¾ 110.2 86.56 13/16 112.6 88.45 7/8 115.1 90.36 15/16 117.5 92.29 6 120.0 94.25 ⅛ 125.1 98.22 ¼ 130.2 102.3 ⅛ 135.5 106.4 ½ 140.8 110.6 ⅝ 146.3 114.9 ¾ 151.9 119.3 ⅞ 157.6 123.7 7 163.3 128.3 ⅛ 169.2 132.9 ¼ 175.2 137.6 ⅜ 181.3 142.4 ½ 187.5 147.3 ⅛ 193.8 152.2 ¼ 200.2 157.2 ⅞ 206.7 162.4 8 213.3 167.6 ¼ 226.9 178.2 ½ 240.8 189.2 ¾ 255.2 200.4 9 270.0 212.1 ¼ 285.2 224.0 ½ 300.8 236.3 ¾ 316.9 248.9 10 333.3 261.8 ¼ 350.2 275.1 ½ 367.5 288.6 ¾ 385.2 302.5 11 403.3 316.8 ¼ 421.9 331.3 ½ 440.8 346.2 ¾j 460.2 361.4 12 480 377.