It is now intended to throw an entirely different light on the matter, and view the subject of Machine Drawing from a purely practical standpoint, that of utility. It is assumed that the student understands and can use the principles which have been previously discussed.

If in a working shop drawing we choose to modify any of these theoretical principles, it will be because of increased value in the utility of the drawing. For example, we may desire to omit some portions of an elevation or plan or side view of a complicated casting, because certain details will thus be more clearly brought out. We may make a "zigzag" section to show construction which, by absolute fidelity to theoretical principle, would be confused, or hidden in a maze of dotted lines. We may find it convenient to place in some unoccupied corner of a drawing a layout which could not be in the least justified by any rule of projection. A multitude of transgressions like these occur on good drawings, and they are certainly justifiable from the standpoint of utility, which is the true ultimate end sought for in a practical shop drawing.

These variations from the theoretical are not strictly conventionalities, because they are not classified or established, so far as we know, but are the spontaneous outgrowth, as the occasion demands, of the draftsman's purpose to make his drawing one of greatest utility. He can, however, safely transgress a principle only when he thoroughly knows the principle; otherwise a blind deviation from the theoretical path will inevitably lead to difficulty.

All of the above is intended to impress the student with the idea that theoretical principles are his best, in fact, his only tools to work with; but they are not "self-hardening," like "mushet" steel; they are like the finest grade of tool steel, which must be tempered and ground and used with the best judgment of the operator, to secure the most satisfactory results.

Student Drawings

A student's early drawings are usually unsatisfactory, even to himself. Somehow they do not look like those seen in shops, and as a rule he is unable to see why this is so. Of course the difference is to some extent due to the experience of the professional draftsman. However, the superior results of the latter's work are attained largely through his systematic and workmanlike habits of execution. It should encourage the student in his early attempts to know that these essentials to the infusion of life and shop spirit into a drawing can be analyzed, outlined, and grasped at the outset by earnest, intelligent effort, and really good workmanlike results obtained. To discuss and, if possi-ble, to impart these essentials of a working shop drawing to the student, is the purpose of the present book.

Essential Requirements

The two chief essentials of a shop drawing, under which general heads a multitude of detail requirements can be summed up, are:

(1) Absolutely complete and definite instructions from designer to workman.

(2) Least possible cost in dollars and cents of production of the drawing measured by the draftsman's time.

It makes no difference how much we may attempt to disguise these two elements, the fact will still be apparent that "complete instructions furnished for the least money" is what the manufacturing shop is after, and what will be assumed as a basis for judgment as to highest commercial utility.

Completeness Of Drawings

As to the first point, that of completeness and definiteness of instruction, there must be no question of degree. If the information which the drawing furnishes is positive and complete, the drawing is good. If doubt arises in the workman's mind as to what the designer intended by a certain line or dimension, or if the dimension be omitted, the drawing is bad. There is no middle ground. The instructions are either present or absent, and the drawing good or bad accordingly.

The workman of today is not permitted to assume dimensions or shape. It is his business to execute the draftsman's orders; it is, however, often his privilege to choose his own way of doing it, but further than this modern practice does not allow him to go. He is held as rigidly to the orders specified by the drawing as the locomotive engineer is held to his bit of tissue telegraphic order to proceed, without which he dare not enter the next block. The drawing is supreme; it is official; it must be plain, direct, and all-sufficient. It is the draftsman's business to make it thus, and he is not a draftsman until he does.

This idea of positiveness must be thoroughly absorbed by the student. Positive action must be a habit which controls his every move, which marks every dimension he prints, which directs every line he draws. Every line must mean something, must have a definite reason for existence, must be necessary to illustrate the idea which he wishes to convey to the workman, and every line must be a definite measurable distance from every other line, so that its location is fixed beyond a doubt. Lines which mean nothing, and cannot be measured, have no place on the drawing; they only confuse it.

A good picture of a machine could scarcely be called to the same service as a good drawing of it. The picture might give us an excellent idea of the machine, but for the purpose of the actual construction the picture is useless, while the drawing is of positive value. This value exists simply because of, and in proportion to, the completeness of detail which it shows. Hence in making a shop drawing the picture idea is entirely subordinate to the idea of utility, the latter, in fact, being the measure of its value.

There are certain classes of drawings - of which the Patent Office drawing is a good example - in the making of which the picture idea is predominant. Here the purpose is to illustrate mechanisms, not construct them; hence the function of the drawing is in no wise that of the working shop drawing, and as such does not fall within our discussion.