Complications In Design

The water cylinder is, perhaps, the most complicated detail that the student will meet in this set of plates. Fundamentally, it is simply a box with curved sides, divided by the several walls into five compartments, each of which communicates with the outside by a round nozzle or flange. If this basic idea be kept constantly in mind, the student will have no trouble in building up the detailed design.

This fundamental conception of a complicated piece is a very important idea, and should be developed carefully by the student. It is one of the great secrets of good design, both from an artistic and a commercial standpoint. We often see a machine which seems to begin anywhere and end nowhere; it appears to be a miscellaneous collection of bosses, lugs, ribs, and flanges. There is no general prevailing shape to the structure, no harmony of the lines. This is because the designer, if he may be so called, did not have the fundamental notion of shape, to which all minor details should have been subordinated. He simply grouped parts together, without considering the fundamental structure.

Complications In Design 600135

In this water cylinder the box is the basic part of the structure, and its lines must be first developed; they should be designed to convey a smooth, regular, and consistent surface to the eye. Then the nozzles and flanges may be added as subordinate parts; they will merely interrupt, but not destroy, the prevailing outline of the box. The dotted lines in the cross-section views of Plate J show the general shape behind and beneath the nozzles.

The hand holes are the same as on Plate K, and the detail of the cover should specify the number required for both places.

Provision for draining the four chambers of the water cylinder is made by the 3/8-inch pipe tap holes at the lower deck, and the cap, likewise, by the single hole at the upper deck. Drip cocks are screwed into these holes.

The holding-down bolts should not be less than 1 inch diameter; 1 inch would perhaps be better; and the holes in the foot should be drilled at least 1/8 inch large.


It will be noticed that this plate has dimension lines, but no figures. This is because the cylinder is rather difficult to figure, and it is desired to guide the student in arrangement of the figures without lessening the benefit of his study of them. Special attention should be paid to this feature of the plate. Notice that although space for dimensions is restricted, a clear opening is always found for the figures; and when one view seems to offer no space for a figure, another view gives the desired opportunity.

No finish marks or titles are shown on this plate, these being left entirely to the student for insertion.


The centers of the curves for the sides being on the main horizontal axis of the nozzles, the cylinder, if molded to be cast vertically as shown, will draw readily both ways from this line. The exceptions to this easy draw are the foot, suction nozzle and flange, and hand-hole boss. On account of the inside of the cylinder being cored, these pieces if made loose on the pattern have ample space to be "pulled in" after the main pattern is withdrawn.

The suction passage below the deck communicates with the main core through the valve holes, hence it may be supported from the main core. This involves some difficulty, however. If a three-part flask be used, and another parting established at the center of the suction flange, in addition to the previous one, the problem becomes much simplified.

It is desirable to make the four chambers of the cylinder alike in general proportions. It is then possible to make a single core-box, and by the use of loose pieces change the length of the nozzle cores and transpose from right to left, thus saving labor on the pattern. This, however, multiplies the loose pieces on the pattern. The many pieces are likely to become lost and make frequent repair necessary. Hence it is not always wise to use a single core box too much, and good judgment is required to fix the limit.


Special double horizontal boring machines are now in common use for such cases as this water cylinder. The centers are made adjustable, so that within limits any distance between piston-rod centers can be met. The advantages of double boring are, of course, most obvious for a considerable number of duplicate cylinders.

It will be noticed that the face of the suction flange is carried out flush with the cylinder head face. This affords opportunity for finishing all the end surfaces at a single setting of the tool, whether the work be done on the rotary or reciprocating planer. This same point might have been observed on the small hand-hole boss at the other end of the cylinder, but the advantage gained did not seem to warrant extending the "reach" through the hand hole.