Side-cutting pliers, such as are illustrated in Fig. 78, will be found convenient not only for cutting off wire and brads, but for removing small brads and for holding small pieces while being worked to shape.

Every pattern shop should have at least one dozen each of three or four different sizes of hand screws or clamps similar to that shown in Fig. 79. These are adjustable through wide ranges. They are used for clamping together the material that is being glued up to form the different parts of a pattern, and are convenient also for many other purposes. The all-iron C-clamp, shown in Fig. 80, is sometimes useful in positions that are hard to reach with a hand screw. The method of adjusting and of using the hand screw will be fully explained later.

Side Cutting Pliers.

Fig. 78. Side-Cutting Pliers.

Wooden Clamp.

Fig. 79. Wooden Clamp.