To draw Plate I,* take a sheet of drawing paper at least 11 inches by 15 inches and fasten it to the drawing board as already explained. Find the center of the sheet and draw fine pencil lines to represent the lines DE and HK of Fig. 38. Also draw the border lines L, M, N, and P.

Now measure 3/8 inch above and below the horizontal center line and, with the T-square, draw lines through these points. These lines will form the lower lines DC of Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 and the top lines AB of Fig. 3 and Fig. 4. Measure 3/8 inch to the right and left of the vertical center line; and through these points, draw lines parallel to the center line. These lines should be drawn by placing the triangle on the T-square as shown in Fig. 38. The lines thus drawn, form the sides B C of Fig. 1 and Fig. 3 and the sides A D of Fig. 2 and Fig.4. Next draw, with the T-square, the line A B A B 4 5/8 inches above the horizontal center line, and the line D C D C 4 5/8 inches below the horizontal center line. The rectangles of the four figures may now be completed by drawing vertical lines 6$ inches on each side of the vertical center line; these rectangles are each 6 1/4 inches long and 4 1/4 inches wide.

* Note Instructions in Appendix and Examination at End of Book.

Preliminary Line Problems Plate I Penciling 500294

Fig. 1. Exercise With Line Pen And T-Square

Divide the line A D into divisions each 1/4 inch long, making a fine pencil point or slight puncture at each division such as E, F, G, H,I, etc. Now place the T-square with its head at the left-hand edge of the drawing board and through these points draw light pencil lines extending to the line B C. In drawing these lines the pencil point must pass exactly through the division marks so that the lines will be the same distance apart. Start each line in the line A D and do not fall short of the line B C or run over it. Accuracy and neatness in penciling insure an accurate drawing. Some beginners think that they can correct inaccuracies while inking; but experience soon teaches them that they cannot do so.

Fig. 2. Exercise With Line Pen, T-Square And Triangle

Divide the lower line D C of the rectangle into divisions each 1/4 inch long and mark the points E, F, G, H, I, J, K, etc., as in Fig. 1. Place the T-square about as shown in Fig. 38, and either triangle in position with its 90-degree angle at the left. Now draw fine pencil lines from the line DC to the line A B passing through the points E, F, G, H, I, J, K, etc., keeping the T-square rigid and sliding the triangle toward the right.

Fig. 3. Exercise With Line Pen T-Square And 45-Degree Triangle

Lay off the distances A E, B L, etc., each 1/4 inch long on A B and B C, respectively. Place the T-square so that the upper edge will be below the line D C, and, with the 45-degree triangle, draw the diagonal lines through the points laid off. In drawing these lines move the pencil away from the body, i. e., from A D to A B and from DC to BC.

Fig. 4. Exercise In Free-Hand Lettering

Draw the center line E F, Fig. 39, and light pencil lines Y Z and T X, 3/8 inch from the border lines. With the T-square, draw the line G, 1/4 inch from the top line and the line H, 5/32 inch below G. The word "LETTERING" is to be placed between these two lines. Draw the line I, 3/16 inch below H, and space the lines included between I and K, 5/32 inch apart.

The next style of letters to be discussed is lower-case letters. Draw the line L 3/16 inch below K and to limit the height of the small letters draw a light line 1/8 inch above L.

Make the space between L and M, 5/33 inch and draw M and N in the same manner as K and L. Now draw 0, 3/16 inch below N, P, 5/32 inch below 0, and Q, 5/32 inch below P. Space Q and R as K and L, and draw S, U, V, and W, 5/32 inch apart.

Sample Lettering Plate   Fig. 4., Plate I.

Fig. 39. Sample Lettering Plate - Fig. 4., Plate I.

The center line is a great aid in centering the word "LETTERING," the alphabets, numerals, etc. Indent the words "THE" and "Proficiency" about 3/8 inch, as they are the first words of paragraphs. To draw the guide lines, mark off distances of 1/4 inch on any line such as J and with the 60-degree triangle draw light pencil lines cutting the parallel lines. Sketch the letters in pencil making the width of the ordinary letters such as E, F, H, N, R, etc., about 3/4 their height. letters like A, M, and W, are wider. The space between the letters depends upon the draftsman's taste, but the beginner should remember that letters next to an A or an L should be placed nearer to them than to letters whose sides are parallel; for instance there should be more space between an N and E than between an E and H. Similarly a greater space should be left on either side of an L On account of the space above the lower line of the L, a letter following an L should be close to it. If a T follows a T or an L follows an L place them near together. In all lettering place the letters so that the general effect is pleasing. After the four figures are completed, pencil in the lettering for name, address, and date. With the T-square draw a pencil line 5/32 inch above the top border line at the right-hand end, and about 3 inches long. At a distance of 5/32 inch above this line draw another line of about the same length. These are the guide lines for the word Plate L Pencil the letters free-hand using the 60-degree guide lines if desired.

Draw in a similar manner the guide lines of the date, name, and address in the lower margin, the date of completing the drawing placed under Fig. 3, and the name and address at the right, under Fig. 4. The street address is unnecessary. It is a good plan to draw lines 5/32 inch apart on a separate sheet of paper and pencil the letters in order to know just how much space each word will require. The insertion of the words "Fig. 1," "Fig. 2," etc., is optional with the student, but it is advised that he do this extra lettering for the practice as well as for convenience in reference. First draw with the T-square two parallel lines 5/32 inch apart under each exercise, the lower line being 1/16 inch above the horizontal center line or above the lower border line.


After all of the penciling of Plate I has been completed the exercises should be inked. Before doing this, however see that the pen is in proper condition, and after filling try it on a separate piece of paper in order that the proper width of line may be drawn. In the first work where no shading is done, use a firm, distinct line. The beginner should avoid the extremes; a very light line makes the drawing appear weak and indistinct, while a very heavy line detracts from its artistic appearance.

Ink in all the horizontal lines of Fig. 1 first, moving the T-square from A to D, and take great care to start and stop the lines exactly on the vertical boundary lines. It is necessary to use both triangle and T-square for inking A D and B C. In inking Fig. 2 and Fig. 3. follow the same directions as for penciling, inking in the vertical and oblique lines first and then the border lines. Ink the border lines of Fig. 4 first and then the border lines of the plate, making the latter very heavy and the intersections accurate. The lettering in Fig. 4 should be done free-hand, using a steel pen not finer than a Gillott 404. Now ink in the four figure numbers, plate number, date, and name, also free-hand, and then erase the pencil lines. In the finished drawing there should be no center lines, construction lines, or letters other than those in the name, date, etc.

Cut the sheet 11" X 15", the dash line outside the border line of Plate I indicating the edge.