Location in relation to the drawing room and machine shop. Capacity of the pattern shop. The working force necessary. Nature of the product. Equipment of the pattern shop. Location of the machines. Building up segment work. The segment press. The faceplate lathe. The foreman's office. The surface plate. Pattern maker's benches. The work table. The varnishing bench and table. The lockers. The lumber loft over the pattern shop. The lumber drying room. The pattern storage room. System of storing patterns. Pattern storage racks of iron construction. The same of all wood construction. Double width storage racks. Step ladders.

Next to the drawing room, in the usual order of the production of new machines and the development of new plans and ideas into their practical form for commercial purposes, comes the pattern shop, with its proper equipment of woodworking machines, its work benches for the expert workmen, and the conveniences for those associated with them in getting out dimension lumber, and other similar work in connection with it; and closely allied with this department, and really forming a part of it is the pattern storage room, wherein patterns may be properly catalogued, stored, and issued to the foundry as occasion may require.

In the pattern shop proper the designs of the draftsmen are first brought into tangible form as patterns for the production of those parts to be made of that most common of all materials used in modern construction, namely, cast iron, as well as those for brass, malleable iron, and steel castings.

It is proper, therefore, as well as convenient, that the pattern shop should be placed next to the drawing room. In this case it opens out of it, and has also its convenient passageway to the machine shop by way of a wide door opening upon the machine shop gallery, which, being reached by the large traveling crane, affords a ready means for moving any heavy or bulky articles to and from the pattern shop as readily as to any part of the machine shop.

The pattern shop occupies the space over the tool room and storeroom portions of one of the 50-foot square structures, and extends, also, over the space taken up by the main driveway on the ground floor. It is thus 50 by 70 feet, affording ample space for all the ordinary uses of this department.

Plan of Pattern Shop and Pattern Storage Room.

Fig. 109. Plan of Pattern Shop and Pattern Storage Room.

In Fig. 109 is shown the plan of the pattern shop and the pattern storage room, and the location of the tools, machines, benches, and other fixtures therein, as well as those in the pattern storage room, giving the location of the pattern storage racks, and the trap doors, one of which opens over the storage space in the yard and the other over the flask room of the foundry.

As to the capacity of the pattern shop and the number of workmen who may be employed in it to advantage, assuming that the arrangement is in force of having special men for special work, there may be fourteen men as its regular force. These will be divided as follows, namely, one foreman, six regular pattern makers, one man at the lathes, one man at the planers, one man for the rip saw and the cutting-off saw, one man at the band saw and for building up segment work, one man at the varnish bench for varnishing patterns, and one man to letter and keep a record of patterns, and one general laborer.

If the product of the shop is in a regular line where nearly the same work is turned out year after year, we have only to provide for the necessary changes of patterns due to the usual changes of form and style that may be required by the demands of trade. In this case the force above provided for could well be considerably reduced. If the product of the establishment is of such a nature that improvements, both in the work turned out and also in the tools necessary to accomplish that result, are constantly in progress, the force above specified will not be too great. If the product is such that a majority of the orders are for such machines as have to be made special, or with important features specialized to meet individual cases, then the force described above may not be sufficient to maintain an evenly balanced arrangement and division of the working force of the establishment.

Where the latter condition is found it may be necessary to use a portion of the pattern storage room adjoining the pattern shop, and well lighted for such use, should it become necessary.

The equipment of the pattern shop has been carefully worked out, with the end constantly in view of so arranging the available space and of so equipping it with such woodworking machinery as may be necessary to carry out the plan of keeping the skilled pattern makers constantly at work on that which is essentially pattern work, and requiring a man skilled in that vocation, rather than of allowing them to use their time in getting out dimension lumber, varnishing patterns, and similar work, which may be just as well done by men of less ability and a lower rate of wages.

Consequently the machines, such as surface planer, jointer, rip saw, cutting-off saw, etc., are handled by men who are practically "mill men" who, while they know little or nothing about pattern making, are capable of getting out such dimension lumber as may be called for by the pattern makers in much less time and at less cost than if it were done by the pattern maker himself. So it is with the man who handles the band saw, whose principal work is that of cutting out segments for the building up of the rims of wheels, gears, etc. Being constantly at this particular kind of work, the man need not be a skilled pattern maker and yet can exceed one in the output and the economy of doing this class of work. In the same manner, for varnishing of new patterns and the revarnishing of old ones, a pattern maker is not needed. Neither is it necessary to employ one to mark, letter, arrange, and catalogue the patterns when completed, as this work may be just as well and much more economically done by a special man at a less rate of wages.