The smaller departments. The importance of minor details. The experience of practical men. The carpenter shop. Arrangement for storing lumber for daily use. The foreman's office. Its construction and arrangement. A fixed desk. Foreman's storeroom. Convenient bins for nails, bolts, etc. Cutting-off saw. Swinging Saw. Rip saw. Work benches. Shop doors. Shop track. The storehouse. Steam railroad track. Wide doorways. The floor arrangement. Overhead trolleys and hoists. Plan for storing machines. Painting machinery. So-called enameling paints. Avoiding the expense of a painting department. The paint room. The general wash rooms. Separate entrance and exit doors. The lockers. Construction and arrangement of the wash rooms. The general water-closets. Construction and arrangement. Sanitary care of wash rooms and water-closets. Building machine foundations. A planer foundation. The necessities of the case. Excavations. The plans for the work. The central pit. Strong mortar necessary. Setting up the planer. Foundation requisites.

In this, the concluding chapter of this portion of the work, it is proposed to take up the smaller departments, special rooms, etc., in the same manner in which the subject has been treated in the previous articles and to give such a detailed description in connection with the engravings as to make the matter as complete as in any of the more important departments of the plant, and finally to give an example of machine foundation more complete than the brief description in Part First of this book.

To many casual readers, or superficial observers, who may have read these chapters it has doubtless appeared that very many of the matters considered have been treated with too great a regard for the smaller details and the minor points which, in their way of thinking, might be easily decided and of at any time without much study as to just how this or that matter could be disposed best handled, or this convenient accessory be best located, arranged, equipped. This ignoring of details, assuming them to be trifling matters, or has often been the cause of much disappointment and useless expense, because what was, at the time, considered a trivial matter has, under perhaps somewhat unusual conditions, and sometimes under the most ordinary conditions, proven to be much more important than at first supposed, and given no end of trouble before being finally arranged in a thoroughly and practically satisfactory manner.

To practical men who have had experience in the designing and arranging of the Various machine shop departments and accessories, or of those of a manufacturing plant, so as to afford the best accommodations and facilities for the class of business to be done there, at a reasonable economical expense, and to those who have had years of practice in superintending and managing the daily routine therein, it has doubtless occurred that there were many points in these chapters that should have been much further elaborated, and whose details should have been gone into more thoroughly and explicitly. For these men know the annoyance, the disturbance of daily routine work, the inconvenience and the expense of alterations, changes, and rearrangements that it has been their lot to encounter and their duty to remedy, in order to bring efficiency out of the ill-advised and impractical plans and get everything running smoothly and satisfactorily.

Plan of Carpenter Shop.

Fig. 152. Plan of Carpenter Shop.

The carpenter shop is located near the rear of the plant, between the machine shop proper and the forge shop, and adjoining the storehouse, or shipping room. Its internal arrangement is shown in Fig. 152. In this department should be stored the lumber and other packing material necessary for shipping, as well as for doing the miscellaneous carpenter work required about the plant. This material may be brought in on the yard cars by way of the track entering the side door; or, if received by the steam railroad cars, it may be brought in through the storehouse - a distance of only fifty feet.

Lumber in long or short lengths will probably come in on the steam railroad cars, as it should be purchased in carload lots. It may be unloaded upon the yard cars at the rear gate and run directly into the carpenter shop. Convenient methods are shown, by dotted lines, in the engravings for locating the different lengths of lumber so as to render any length accessible without disturbing any other length. Ordinarily the lumber will be piled on the floor, but light, thin lumber, matched sheathing, etc., may be placed in racks overhead, where it will be more out of the way and safer from accidental injury. Box stuff cut to dimensions, as well as made-up boxes, may be similarly stored so as not to unnecessarily encumber the floor space.

In the outer corner of the shop is an inclosure serving as an office for the foreman. It is built of ⅞-inch matched sheathing to the height of 42 inches, and above this height it is composed of a galvanized iron wire netting 4 feet wide and of 1-inch mesh, attached to a frame of 2 x 3 scantling, placed not over five feet apart, and forming also the framework supporting the sheathed portion below. The wire netting is tightly strained upon this and fastened with 16-ounce tacks, after which a face casing « inch thick and 3 inches wide is put on, along the top and bottom and vertically at each upright. A cap 1 inch thick and 3 inches wide is placed on top. At the top of the sheathing a 1 × 2 inch strip forms a cap, underneath which a « × 1 inch strip forms the finish. Doors may be conveniently made with side and top stiles 1 inch by 4« inches, and the middle and bottom stiles 1 inch by 6 inches, all "halved together," glued and screwed, and covered with the wire netting, and finished with a facing strip « inch by 2 inches, mitered around each panel to cover the edges of the wire netting. These are very strong and quite light and answer the purpose admirably. The object of constructing inclosures in the shop in this manner is to obtain a reasonably secure partition, and at the same time one that will offer as little obstruction to the light as possible, and also permit as free observation of the various parts of the room, as well as of the inclosure itself. This method has been found in practice to be strong, durable, and economical.