This section is from the "Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management" book, by Oscar E. Perrigo. Also see Amazon: Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management.
In connection with the planers are located the shapers and the slotters, as shown in the plan. These are also served by the overhead trolley as noted above, and work from them or from the planers may be thus conveniently moved to the drilling and boring department unless the parts are so large as to make the traveling crane necessary.
Next in the order of work is usually that of boring, either in vertical boring mills, horizontal boring machines, radial drills, etc. Therefore this class of machines will naturally come next to the planers, and on the same side of the shop, in the drilling and boring department. The vertical boring machines are of the usual type in which much of the large work, such as pulleys, balance wheels, and many other heavy parts, are much more readily handled than upon a lathe. The horizontal boring machines are those with the low, traversing table, and elevating head and tail stocks, while the horizontal boring and drilling machines are those with a stationary head and an outer support for the boring bar, and a vertically adjustable table supported by two vertical screws. The first is adapted to heavy work, while the latter handles that of medium weight.
The so-called railroad suspension drill is one provided with a perfectly level track upon which long beds, as lathe beds, may be supported on rollers and run to any desired point in their length for drilling and tapping. Assuming that there will be hollow spindles required, two spindle boring machines are provided. These may be of the horizontal cylinder type for the purpose of feeding, where only one tool is used, or with a heavy turret and slide when more than one tool is required. Two gang drills are provided for jig work where medium or small sized holes are needed. Next to the wall is a row of ordinary upright drills of the capacity indicated. Where necessary, small jib cranes should be attached to the columns for use at individual machines, or for a pair of machines.
The Heavy Turning Department, on the opposite side of the shop and at the front end, contains all lathes of 28-inch swing and upwards. Also the heavy turret lathes for cast iron work and the larger parts of steel or other material. Here are also the vertical chucking machines, which are in many cases to be preferred to those of horizontal type. The lathes of 38-inch swing and upwards are placed inside of the row of columns so as to be served by the traveling crane. Nevertheless, small jib cranes attached to the columns and operated by hand will be found very useful for a number of the other machines.
The cone-turning machine should be arranged to turn and crown all the steps of a cone at once. This and the pulley-turning machine are located convenient to the vertical chucking machines. Two shafting lathes of 28-inch swing and 44-feet beds are provided. In locating the lathes a space of four feet is left between the ends so as to give free access to any part of the room. Material is brought in on the tram track, one end of which extends out under the traveling crane. The heavy turret lathes and the vertical chucking machines will handle much of the work frequently done in the engine lathes and do it much quicker, thereby saving the number of the latter to be set up.
Next in order is the Milling and Gear-Cutting Department. Here surface milling machines are provided for large surfaces, while smaller surfaces are taken care of by the six plain, or Lincoln millers. Two universal millers do the more complicated work and a small lathe is put in as a convenient machine to save going to another department for small and simple jobs of turning. The five vertical millers will do a large quantity of work very accurately and at better advantage than planers could do it, and at the same time at a much less cost for labor, as is the usual result with milling machine work.
Six gear cutters are provided for spur gears, and two for bevel gears, while a special gear shaper and a gear planer will do the work required to be particularly accurate. Four rack cutters will usually be a proper proportion to the above. While the cutters for these machines are made in the general tool room, two grinders are provided so as to keep them in order in the department where they are used. A convenient extension of the rear tram track furnishes means to bring in and take out work.
The gallery floors are divided into six departments, namely, Small Parts, Grinding, Polishing, Small Parts Assembling, Small Parts Store, and Experimental Departments. A tram track connects them all, passing through the cross gallery at the front end, under a traveling crane, by which any machine, car, truck, or lot of stock may be quickly transferred to or from the main or ground floor.
The Small Parts Department is the largest of the six and contains six turret lathes for making steel work from the bar, and four automatic screw machines for smaller work and for such special screws as may be made in the shop more economically than they can be purchased. A line of engine lathes of the sizes given on the plan handle such small work as requires to be turned on centers. Long lathes for turning and threading leadscrews and similar work are provided, as is also a machine with a traveling head for milling the splines in long rods or screws, and two small key-seating machines for milling semicircular key seats. Racks for bar stock are provided in the front gallery and near the screw lathes for stock and for finished work.