Certain areas about the yards will need paving, as, for instance, the driveways, the space around the catch basins, protecting strips around the foundations of the buildings, and in similar places. Very hard tar concrete makes an excellent driveway, unless it be used for very heavy trucking where the horses are liable to slip, particularly in wet weather. To avoid this a brick pavement, constructed with brick set on edge and the courses arranged at right angles to the line of the driveway, will be found an excellent surface. The bricks should be the regular hard paving bricks such as used in street paving, and laid by men who are expert workmen at this class of paving, to insure success.

Cobble stone pavements are more economical and are very durable, but not as neat in appearance or as agreeable when we must walk over them frequently.

The protecting strips around the foundations of the buildings should be of the ordinary tar concrete such as is used for sidewalks, and should be not less than two feet wide and incline away from the building not less than an inch to the foot.

For large areas of yard space the ground should be brought nearly up to the desired grade and then covered with fine gravel, or fine cinders, rolled down hard. It may be rendered more firm by the addition of fine, dry clay, which, when sprinkled lightly with water and then rolled down, will form a "bond" to hold the cinders together. Another method, where cast iron chips from lathes and planers are plenty and cheap, is to sprinkle these evenly over the fine gravel, mix the two together with a hand rake, then roll down hard. Then sprinkle with water, and the rusting of the iron chips will in a little time form, with the gravel, a hard, compact mass. If this has been laid to the depth of even two inches, in a proportion of equal parts of iron chips and fine gravel, and allowed to lie without disturbing for a month or so, subject to rains, or occasional sprinkling, it will make a very satisfactory yard surface for any use except heavy trucking.

Around catch basins, tar concrete should be laid for a distance of five to ten feet in all directions.

Where the grounds are large and the crossing of specially prepared driveways interfere with the grading to induce a flow of surface water to the catch basin, a small water-way should be provided under it at proper intervals. This may be built of bricks, but still better, with a brick floor and an arch composed of an inverted U-shaped section, or sections, of cast iron an inch and a quarter thick. Ordinarily the space need not be over six inches high and eight to twelve inches wide. This form will be less liable to injury by driving over it; it will not be subject to displacement as if built of bricks, and may be more readily cleaned of ice and snow in winter.

Catch basins should be covered with slightly arched cast iron gratings, the purpose of the arching being to prevent it from being easily clogged by bits of rubbish which may be washed to it by a heavy and sudden downpour of rain. Catch basins should be constructed of such dimensions that they need be cleaned out but twice a year, although by building them of double the capacity they may be only cleaned once a year, which had better be done in the summer or early autumn, before cold weather comes on, as a more convenient time than in the spring when snow is melting, the frost coming out of the ground, and the work becoming more disagreeable. As to the capacity of these catch basins, they should contain, up to the top of the bridge-wall, about one cubic foot to every hundred square feet of yard surface to be drained. This will be amply sufficient for annual cleaning.

These observations are intended to be practical. They are the result of experience as well as observation, and the more care and consideration that is given to the few matters to which attention is directed in this chapter, the less we shall be annoyed by the incidental and usually considered accidental expenses that so frequently cause much unexpected trouble and outlay in the regular course of the management of manufacturing plants.