This section is from the "Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management" book, by Oscar E. Perrigo. Also see Amazon: Modern Machine Shop Construction, Equipment, And Management.
There should be a sufficient number of errand boys at different points in the shop to quickly answer all calls for tools and to return them to the tool room promptly. Their wages will be small in comparison with the time that would be lost by the men in doing similar duty. With lathe and planer tools, etc., each operator should always have a spare tool at his machine in good condition for use. He may then take out a dull tool and send it to the tool room where it will be exchanged for a sharp one, and have no delay but in changing tools in his machine.
The original sharp tools only are charged to him at the tool room. These charges, as well as similar ones for tools used continually, are made upon cards containing the man's name and number at the top, following which is a list of tools in his possession for his regular work, and which he may retain for months, the dulled, worn, defective, or broken ones being replaced from day to day. The form of this card is shown in Fig. 197.
Fig. 197. Permanent Issue Tool Card, size, 3 × 5 in. Color, White.
In the regular course of manufacturing work there are certain sets of tools, jigs, gages, fixtures, etc., required at one time. For instance, where a lot of holes are to be drilled and tapped there will be required a tap drill, a set of three taps, and a tap wrench. Or, where a certain machine part is to be milled there will be needed one or more milling fixtures with the necessary milling cutters. Or, a part to be drilled will require a drill jig and drills of the various sizes to go with it. These sets of tools and fixtures should be kept in separate boxes provided with a hinged cover, lock, and key. The contents of the boxes are plainly marked on the outside, as, for instance, "Milling, Part D-135," "Drilling, Part P-24," "Drill and Tap, ⅝," etc.
In arranging these boxes on the shelves they should be grouped according to their purposes, or the machines to which they pertain. For instance, those for drilling and tapping, and the shelf so marked on its edge. Sets of jigs, gages, and fixtures should be grouped in a section of shelving according to the machines to which they belong, then grouped according to the particular part to which they pertain. These sets of tools are issued only on a written order from the foreman of the department where they are to be used. They are accounted for by the card system in the following manner: There is a separate card for each set of tools. These are arranged in one or more drawers marked "Tools in," the guide cards showing the machines to which they refer, or, if general in character, the kind of tools, as drilling and tapping, drilling and reaming, etc.
When a set of tools is issued the card representing them is removed from its accustomed place and filed in another drawer marked "Tools out," the guide cards in which will indicate the department to which the set of tools were sent. When the set of tools is returned the card is restored to its accustomed place. Thus there is no writing necessary, the simple changing of a card answering all purposes of a book and being much more convenient for reference. Each card contains a list of all tools or pieces that are contained in the set.
At the left in Fig. 190 is shown the plan of the stock room, access to which for the purpose of drawing stock and supplies is by way of the area at the left, in front of the semicircular counter. This room is arranged in a similar manner to the tool keeping room, with sections of shelving between which are passages, or alcoves, for conveniently reaching any part of them. These shelves are arranged for the reception of boxes, drawers, sheet iron trays, or whatever form of receptacle may be needed for the particular form of small or large stock to be kept.
Up to a height of 42 inches these shelves may be formed as bins for holding the larger sizes of round and hexagonal head cap screws, set screws, washers, rivets, nut blanks, and similar stock. The smaller screws, as round and flat head machine screws, cap screws, set screws, etc., may be kept in trays or boxes, or left in the original packages on the shelves. Small stock, such as oil cups, brass cocks, gas fittings, etc., should be kept in trays or boxes, on the shelves. Bar stock, such as drill rods, square tool steel, round and square cold drawn machine steel, and similar stock, should be kept in deep pigeon holes, which take in nearly the whole length, and is provided for at D.
Sheet steel, brass, copper, and fiber should stand on edge, in a case provided with vertical partitions two inches apart, and may commence near the floor and consist of three or more sections, one above the other. These are located at E, E. Lubricating oils are kept in vertical cans holding a barrel each, and set in drip pans on the bench at F. Belting should be kept in the rolls, set on edge between upright partitions arranged under the bench at G, this location being selected for convenience in stretching out a piece of belting down the passage to the rear, in measuring it to the required length by brass-headed nails driven into the floor at proper intervals.
Waste, or whatever substitute is used in lieu of it, is kept under the bench at H. Stock issued by weight will be weighed on a proper scale located on the counter at J. Brass, steel, and copper wire in coils may be hung on brackets or pins over the shelves at the left side of the room. Small coils of wire, as of music wire for springs, should be kept in drawers or boxes on the shelves. In all cases the stock keeper will so locate his stock that the kinds most frequently called for will be the most convenient to reach, so far as it is possible to do so.