At the head of this extensive and highly useful class must be placed the plate papers. They are of the same size, weight, and quality as the drawing-papers, described in the foregoing list, differing from them, however, in being of a particularly soft and absorbent nature; the process of sizing, which gives the firmness so necessary in papers intended to be written on, being wholly omitted in manufacturing plate-paper. Plate-paper is not made smaller than medium, which is the size necessary for the plates of a demy book. These papers, as their name implies, are used for copper-plate printing. When the plates are to be coloured, drawing-paper is usually employed, then technically termed hard-plate, in contra-distinction to the former, or soft-plate. When plates that have been printed on soft paper require to be coloured, it is necessary first to size the paper, which may very readily be done with a clear solution of isinglass.

For taking proofs from engravings, a paper of Chinese manufacture is employed, well known in the trade under the name of India-paper. In consequence of its peculiarity of fibre, this paper possesses a singular degree of ductility, which enables it to enter the finest lines of an engraving; in addition to this peculiar softness and flexibility of texture, it also appears to have an absorbent and congenial quality for fixing the ink, which causes it to take every light and shade with much less colour and pressure, and, what is of the utmost importance to printers, allows the ink to set and dry in considerably less time than any other paper. India-paper is imported in sheets, fifty-one or fifty-two inches long, by twenty-six inches wide; the weight varies; but one hundred sheets usually weigh about from ten to eleven pounds.

The following is a list of the other papers in this class, the weights and sizes of which vary greatly, according to the choice of the manufacturer.

NAME.

DIMENSIONS.

WEIGHT.

Inches.

Inches.

lbs.

lbs.

Large news .......................................

32

by

22

32

to

37

Small news .......................................

28

-

21

23

-

25

Royal ...............................................

25

-

20

26

-

28

Medium ..........................................

23 1/2

-

18 1/4

24

-

26

Demy .................................................

22 1/2

-

18

15

-

21

Short demy, for music ......................

20 1/2

-

14

25

-

28

Copy ..................................................

20 1/4

-

16 1/4

13

-

16

Crown ..............................................

20

-

15

7

-

12

Foolscap ...........................................

16 1/2

-

13 1/4

9

-

14

Pott ....................................................

15 1/2

-

12 1/4

9

-

10 1/2

NAME.

DIMENSIONS.

WEIGHT.

Inches

Inches.

lbs.

lbs.

Square cartridge.....

33 1/2

by

21 1/2

46

to

50

Double crown ditto ...........................

30

-

20

30

-

38

Elephant ditto ..........................

28

-

23

48

-

52

Common size ditto .........................

26

-

21

40

-

50

Royal ditto ..........................

24

-

19 1/2

29

-

32

*Demy ditto .........................

22 1/2

-

17 1/2

26

-

28

*Foolscap ditto ........................

16 1/4

-

13 1/4

13

-

15

* these two are mostly made In the double size.

The three last of these are always made in the double size. Printing-papers are generally of a yellow-wove texture, and are not so well sized as the writing-papers; but the sizing is not wholly omitted, as, without some portion of it, they would not possess sufficient strength for ordinary purposes.

We come now to speak of the Wrapping or Packing-papers. This class includes an almost endless variety of sorts and sizes, which, for the sake of perspicuity, we shall notice under the following heads; viz., Cartridge-papers, Blue papers, Hand papers, and Brown papers.

Cartridge Papers.

Blue Papers.

NAME.

DIMENSIONS.

WE/OUT.

Inches.

Inches.

lbs.

lbs.

Blue elephant......................................

28

by

23

30

to

32

Ditto double crown .............................

30

-

20

20

-

24

Ditto ditto foolscap ...........................

26 1/2

-

16

18

-

20

Blue royal............................................

25

-

20

20

-

22

Ditto demy........................................

22 1/2

-

18

15

-

20

Hand (or white-brown) Papers.

NAME.

DIMENSIONS.

WEIGHT.

Inches.

Inches.

lbs.

lbs.

Elephant............................................

28

by

23

30

to

36

Thick royal hand..............................

24 1/2

-

20 1/2

36

-

40

Thin ditto ditto.................................

24

-

20

16

-

20

Royal curling...................................

23 1/2

-

19 1/2

10

-

12

Lumber hand...................................

22 1/2

-

18 1/2

13

-

15

Middle ditto.....................................

22

-

17

12

-

14

Small ditto........................................

20

-

15

5

-

10

Brown Papers.

NAME.

DIMENSIONS.

WEIGHT.

Inches.

. Inches.

lbs.

lbs.

Imperial cap.........................................

29

by

22

50

to

84

Bag ditto................................................

23 1/2

-

19 1/2

30

-

48

Kentish ditto.........................................

21

-

17 1/2

26

-

28

Small ditto............................................

20

-

15

10

-

12

Double four pound ................................

32

-

20

56

-

66

Small ditto ditto....................................

28 1/2

-

17 1/2

42

-

52

There are a variety of papers for particular purposes, which do not properly belong to any of the classes hitherto described; we therefore proceed to notice the principal of them, commencing with Blotting-paper, which must be well known to every person; it is made of three sizes, viz. medium, post, and foolscap; the weight, quality, and colour, vary greatly, but the pale red is by far the most used. Blotting-paper, especially the colourless description, is much used in chemical experiments, for the purposes of filtration; there is, however, a paper made expressly for this purpose, known by the name of filtering-paper; it is generally made the size of double crown, and is of a thick, woolly texture.

Tissue-paper is also too well known to need description, beyond stating that it is made the size of crown, double and single, and demy. A particular species of tissue-paper is manufactured and sold under the name of copying post; it is wholly destitute of size, and is of a thin absorbent texture; its size is medium; its use is for copying newly-written letters. For this purpose it is slightly moistened, and laid on the letter written with copying-ink, and then subjected to the action of a press, kept in counting-houses for that purpose; on removing the letter from the machine, an accurate fac-simile is found transferred to the copying paper, which pasted in a book, answers all the purposes of the more tedious and laborious methods of transcribing formerly practised.

Littress is a kind of smooth cartridge-paper; it is made of two sizes, royal and foolscap, and only used in the manufacture of cards. Besides many of the papers already described, grocers use a thick purple paper, which forms a distinct class, under the title of sugar blues.

Sugar Blues.

NAME.

DIMENSIONS.

WEIGHT.

Inches.

Inches.

lbs.

Large lump............................................

22 1/2

by

32

108

Small ditto............................................

28 3/4

-

21 3/4

102

Single loaf............................................

26 3/4

-

19

80

Powder ditto.........................................

26

-

18

58

Double ditto.........................................

22

-

15 3/4

44

Besides the brown papers enumerated, there are some made for particular purposes, among which may be noticed a large coarse paper for strong packing purposes, known by the name of Manchester-papers: sheathing-paper, for the use of ship-builders, and tip-paper for hatters, are also of a similar description.

It may be as well to observe, that although a very marked distinction has been made in the classification of the several papers, yet such in reality does not exist; as the finest printing and sometimes even writing-papers are applied to wrapping purposes; instance the foolscaps, crowns, and demies, used by grocers, batters, and the like. In hand papers, again, some difficulty occurs; elephant, which stands at the head of that class, is used almost exclusively for the manufacture of paper-hangings, being joined together, and printed on: it is made of various qualities, according to the description of work for which it is intended. The elegant crimson and satin hangings require a paper of the best printing quality, which will not, therefore, properly come under the denomination of hand-paper; but had these and similar particulars been permitted to interfere with the plan adopted, much unnecessary repetition and great confusion would have been the inevitable consequence. We have, therefore, given the most usual weights and sizes, which continue much the same, in whatever class the quality of the paper may chance to place it.

Coloured papers are of two kinds, those which are made at the paper-mill, either by colouring the pulp in the vat, by using coloured rags, or by dyeing the paper afterwards; and those which are made from white papers, by persons following the business of fancy stationers. In the first class, we find the coloured drawing or crayon papers for artists, coloured royal and demy for bookbinders, and the delicate tinted post and tissue-papers, in high repute with the fair sex. The second class comprises, in addition to some of the above, coloured double-crown and demy, for posting-bills, coloured foolscap, (or small post,) plain and glazed for fancy work, and varnish coloured papers, embossed in imitation of watered or figured silk, and morocco leather. To these may be added a very great variety of marble-papers for bookbinding, as also papers beautifully painted in imitation of the various valuable woods and marbles.