Eighthly, For a modification of the crank and beam intended to supersede the use of a beam of the usual weight and dimensions, parallel motion, cross heads, and costly fittings and bearings connected therewith. This mode of converting the reciprocating into the rotative motion, the patentee says, "accomplishes the grand desideratum of making one cylinder produce a more regular and equalized motion than can be accomplished by two cylinders when used to give motion to locomotive engines or paddle wheels."

Ninthly, The condensation by which highly elastic steam of any temperature may be converted into water, without the application of injection, or by the extension of surface by making the cubic contents of the condensing chamber equal to the number of cubic inches of steam discharged.

We have now to notice the labours of Mr. Joseph Gibbs, late of the Kent Road, and Mr. Augustus Applegath, of Crayford in Kent, who had a joint patent, dated 29th March, 1833, for "certain improvements in steam-carriages." To give an intelligible description of the many contrivances contained in their elaborate specification, our space is inadequate; we must therefore be content with giving an idea of the nature of the subjects, and refer the inquiring reader to the enrolled parchments.

The first described improvement relates to the general arrangement of a steam-carriage. The boiler is of a novel description, and consists of a series of double cones arranged one over the other, the external angles or spaces between which are receptacles for water, which is circumscribed externally by a cylindrical casing. The fire is in the centre of the series of cones, and operates upon their extensive surfaces; and the flue is so arranged as to repeat the heating operation by a descending current. There is also a curious combination of shafts, wheels, couplers and springs for varying the speed, etc.

The locomotive carriage, contrived by Dr. W. H. Church, being patented in 1832, next comes under our observation. The principal novelties claimed by him, consist; first, in making the frame of the carriage of a combination of wood of small scantling combined with angle iron, to give it the requisite strength. A framework of this kind, well trussed and braced, incloses a space between a hind and fore-body of the carriage, and of the same height as the latter, and is to contain the engines, boiler, etc. The boiler consists of a series of vertical tubes, into each of which is introduced a pipe that passes through, and is secured at the bottom of the boiler tube. The interior pipes constitute the flues, each of which, after passing through the boiler tube, is bent syphon-wise, and passed down till it reaches as low or lower than the bottom of the fire-place, whence it passes off into a general flue in communication with an exhausting apparatus. Some other complications of tubes form a part of the arrangement, which out limits forbid us to describe. Two fans are employed, one to blow in air, and the other to draw it out; they are worked as usual, by straps from the crank shaft.

The wheels of the carriage are constructed with the view of rendering them to a certain degree elastic, in two different ways: first, the felloes are made of several successive layers of broad wooden hoops, and these are covered with a thin iron tire, having lateral straps to bind the hoops together; second, these binding-straps are connected by hinge joints, to a kind of flat steel springs, somewhat curved, which form the spokes of the wheels. These spring spokes are intended to obviate the necessity, in a great measure, of the ordinary springs, and the elasticity of the periphery is designed that the yielding of the circle shall prevent the wheel from turning without propelling ! Dr. Church, however, proposes, in addition to spring felloes, spring spokes, and the ordinary springs, to employ air springs, and for that purpose provides two or more cylinders, made fast to the body of the carriage, in a vertical position, closed at top, and furnished with a piston, with packing similar to the cap-leather packing of the hydraulic press: this piston is kept covered with oil, to preserve it in good order, and a piston-rod connects it with the supporting frame of the carriage.

Motion is communicated by two oscillating steam cylinders, which are suspended on the ends of the eduction and induction pipes over the crank shaft. The crank shaft and driving-wheel axle are connected together by means of chains passing about pitched pulleys; and there are two pairs of these pulleys, of different sizes with respect to each other, by which the power may be varied, by shifting the motion from one pair to the other, by means of clutch boxes.

In October, 1832, Mr. Redmund, of the City Road, patented aboiler, especially designed for locomotive uses. It consists of a series of parallel vertical chambers with corrugated sides, for the purpose of extending the heating surface, and accelerating the production of steam in a compact apparatus. The principal difference between it and Mr. Hancock's, is in the circumstance of the corrugation. Mr. Redmund, shortly after the grant of his patent, constructed a 6team carriage, which is represented in the subjoined cut. The wheels are entirely metallic; the spokes are cast hollow or tubular, and of an ornamental design. The arrangement and position of the chief part of the propelling mechanism is the same as Hancock's. The guiding is effected by reins in a similar manner to those of horses, each rein operating separately through the medium of levers in turning the fore wheels of the carriage to the right or left; and to facilitate this motion, each wheel revoly s on a distinct axle supported in a frame that turns horizontally upon a pivot, after the manner of Ackerman's patent of 1816.

Steam Carriages 506

A tubular boiler for locomotive purposes, was patented jointly by Mr. John Squire and Colonel Maceroni, on the 18th July, 1833. It consists of nine rows of upright cylindrical tubes, each row containing nine tubes. In the middle of these the fire-place is situated; and to obtain the requisite space for it and the fuel under combustion, a portion of the interior ranges of tubes are propor-tionably shortened, as well as three of the front tubes, to form a fire-door. All the vertical tubes are connected by means of small horizontal tubes at the top and at the bottom; the upper being a steam communication, and the lower a water communication; but as they are all open to each other, and the application of the heat cannot be precisely uniform in every part, a circulation of the fluid necessarily ensues. The fire-bars are formed of hollow tubes, filled with water, and communicating with the vertical tubes. The steam is conducted from the latter tubes by means of small pipes entering the otherwise close tops of each, into a central recipient, from which the engine is supplied.