This section is from the book "Spons' Mechanics' Own Book: A Manual For Handicraftsmen And Amateurs", by Edward Spon. Also available from Amazon: Spons' Mechanics' Own Book.
The term "carpentry" is here employed in its widest sense, embracing what is more properly known as "joinery." The former is strictly applied to the use of wood in architectural structures, as for instance the joists, flooring, and rafters of a house, while the latter refers to the conversion of wood into articles of utility which are not remarkable for beauty of design or delicacy of finish. It is eminently convenient to discuss the united arts of carpentry and joinery under a single head, as they are really so closely connected as to present no real difference.
The art of the carpenter may be divided into 3 distinct heads - (1) a consideration of the kinds, qualities, and properties of the woods to be worked upon; (2) a description of the tools employed, and how to. use them and keep them in order; and (3) the rudimentary principles of constructing fabrics in wood, with examples showing their application in various ways. The subject will be dealt with in this order.