The properties which render a wood most suitable for one class of purposes may preclude its use in another class. It is therefore useful to have a general idea of the relative order of merit of woods according to the application for which they are destined. The subjoined catalogue is framed after the opinions of the best authorities: -

Elasticity

ash, hickory, hazel, lancewood, chestnut (small), yew, snakewood.

Elasticity And Toughness

oak, beech, elm, lignum-vitte, walnut, hornbeam.

Even Grain (For Carving Or Engraving)

pear, pine, box, lime tree.

Durability (In Dry Works)

cedar, oak, yellow pine, chestnut.

Building (Ship-Building)

cedar, pine (deal), fir, larch, elm, oak, locust, teak.

Wet Construction (As Piles, Foundations, Flumes, Etc.)

elm, alder, beech, oak, white-wood, chestnut, ash, spruce, sycamore.

Machinery And Millwork (Frames)

ash, beech, birch, pine, elm, oak.

Boilers, Etc

box, lignum-vitae, mahogany.

Teeth Of Wheels

crab tree, hornbeam, locust.

Foundry Patterns

alder, pine, mahogany.

Furniture (Common)

beech, birch, cedar, cherry, pine, whitewood.

Best Furniture

amboyna, black ebony, mahogany, cherry, maple, walnut, oak, rosewood, satinwood, sandalwood, chestnut, cedar, tulip-wood, zebra-wood, ebony.

Piles

oak, beech, elm.

Posts

chestnut, acacia, larch.

Great Strength In Construction

teak, oak, greenheart, Dantzic fir, pitch pine.

Durable In Wet Positions

oak, beech, elm, teak, alder, plane, acacia, greenheart.

Large Timbers In Carpentry

Memel, Dantzic, and Riga fir; oak, chestnut, Bay mahogany, pitch pine, or teak, may be used if easily obtainable.

Floors

Christiania, St. Petersburg, Onega, Archangel, make the best; Gefle and spruce inferior kinds; Dram battens wear well; pitch pine, oak, or teak, where readily procurable, for floors to withstand great wear.

Panelling

American yellow pine for the best; Christiania white deals are also used.

Interior Joinery

American red and yellow pine; oak, pitch pine, and mahogany for superior or ornamental work.

Window Sills, Sleepers

oak; mahogany where cheaply procurable.

Treads Of Stairs - Oak, Teak. Handles - Ash, Beech. Patterns

American yellow pine, alder, mahogany.

Strength

The following table shows the results of many experiments : -

Wood seasoned.

Weight of

1 cub. ft.

(dry.)

Tenacity persq. in., lengthways of the grain.

Modulus of

Rupture.

Modulus of

Elasticity.

Resistance to Crushing in direction of fibres.

Comparative

Stiffness and

Strength, Oak being 100.

Lb.

Tons.

1000 lb.

1000 lb.

Tons sq.

per in.

Stiffness.

Strength.

From. To.

Moderately dry.

Thoroughly dry.

Acacia ......

48

5.0 81

1152-1687

98

95

Alder.......

50

4.5 6.3

..

1086

63

80

Ash, English ..

43-53

1.8 7.6

12-14

1525-2290

3.8

4.2

89

119

" Canadian ..

30

2.45

10

1380

2.5

77

79

Beech.......

43-53

2.1 6.6

9-12

1350

3.4

42

77

103

Birch.......

45-49

6.7

11

1645

1.5

2.8

Cedar........

35-47

1.3 5.1

7-8

486

2.5

2.6

28

62

Chestnut......

35-41

4.5 5.8

10

1140

.

.

67

89

Elm, English ..

34-37

2.4 6.3

6-9

700-1340

2.6

4.6

78

82

" Canadian..

47

4.1

14

2470

4.1

139

114

Fir, Spruce......

29-32

1.3 4.5

9-12

1400-1800

2.9

3.0

72

86

" Dantzic.......

36

1.4 4.5

13

2300

31

130

108

" American red pine....

34

1.2 6.0

7-10

1460-2350

2.1

132

81

" American yellow pine..

32

0.9

8

1600-2480

1.8

139

66

" Memel..

34

4.2 4.9

1536-1957

6

114

80

" Kaurie.....

34

2.0

11

2880

2.6

162

89

" Pitch pine ..

41-58

2.1 4.4

14

1252-3000

3.0

73

82

" Riga ..

34-47

1.8 55

9

870-3000

2.1

62

83

Greenheart....

58-72

3.9 4.1

16-27

1700

5.8

6.8

98

165

Hornbeam......

47.5

9.1

37

, .

108

Jarrah.......

63

1.3

10

1187

3.2

67

85

Larch......

32-38

1.9 5.3

5-10

1360

2.6

79

103

Mahogany,

Spanish

53

1.7 7.3

7

1255-3000

32

73

67

" Honduras

35

1.3 8.4

11-12

1596-1970

2.7

93

96

Mora......

57-68

41

21-22

1860

.

.

105

164

Oak, English ..

49-58

3.4 8.8

10-13

1200-1750

2.9

4.5

100

100

" American..

61

3.0 4.6

12

2100

31

114

86

Plane.......

40

5.4

..

1343

78

92

Poplar.....

23-26

2.68

..

763

1.4

2.3

44

50

Sycamore ..

36-43

4.3 5.8

9

1040

31

82

111

Teak......

41-52

1.47 6.7

12-19

2167-2414

2.3

5.4

126

109

Willow .. ..

24-35

6.25

6

••

1.3

2.7

Timber when wet has not half the strength of the same when dry. The resistance of wood to a crushing force exerted across the fibres is much less than in the direction of their length. Memel fir is indented with a pressure of 1000 lb. per sq. in., and oak with 1400 lb. The resistance to shearing is nearly twice as great across the fibres as with them.