1. Water, 1 gallon; madder, 8 oz.; fustic, 4 oz. Boil. Lay on with a brush while hot, and while wet streak it with black to vary the grain. This imitates Honduras mahogany.

2. Madder, 8 oz.; fustic, 1 oz.; logwood, 2 oz.; water, 1 gallon. Boil and lay on while hot. Resembles Spanish mahogany.

3. A set of pine shelves, which were brushed two or three times with a strong boiling decoction of logwood chips, and varnished with solution of shellac in alcohol, appear almost like mahogany both in color and hardness. After washing with decoction of logwood and drying thoroughly, they received two coats of varnish. They were then carefully sandpapered and polished, and received a final coat of shellac varnish.

Imitation Ebony

There are two processes in use for giving to very fine grained wood the appearance of ebony. One is a mere varnish, and may be applied in a few minutes, as it dries very rapidly. Either French polish, made black with any fine coloring matter, or good " air-drying black varnish," may be applied. This, however, gives only a superficial coloring, and when the edges and corners of the work wear off, the light-colored wood shows. The other method is as follows: Wash any compact wood with a boiling decoction of logwood three or four times, allowing it to dry between each application. Then wash it with a solution of acetate of iron, which is made by dissolving iron filings in vinegar. This stain is very black and penetrates to a considerable depth into the wood, so that ordinary scratching or chipping does not show the original color. Some recipes direct the solutions of logwood and iron to be mixed before being applied, but this is a great mistake.

Black Walnut Stain

1. Take asphaltuni, pulverize it, place it in a jar or bottle, pour over it about twice its bulk of turpentine, put it in a warm place, and shake it from time to time. When dissolved, strain it and apply it to the wood with a cloth or stiff brush. If it should make too dark a stain thin it with turpentine. This will dry in a few hours. If it is desired to bring out the grain still more, apply a mixture of boiled oil and turpentine; this is better than oil alone. Put no oil with the asphaltum mixture or it will dry very slowly. When the oil is dry the wood can be polished with the following: Shellac varnish, of the usual consistency, 2 parts; boiled oil, 1 part. Shake it well before using Apply it to the wood by putting a few drops on a cloth and rubbing briskly on the wood for a few momenta. This polish works well on old varnished furniture.

2. The appearance of walnut may be given to white woods by painting or sponging them with a concentrated warm solution of permanganate of potassa. The effect is different on different kinds of timber, some becoming stained very rapidly, others requiring more time for the result. The permanganate is decomposed by the woody fibre; brown peroxide of manganese is precipitated, and the potash is afterwards removed by washing with water. The wood, when dry, may be varnished.

Brown Stain

Paint over the wood with a solution made by boiling 1 part of catechu (cutch or gambier) with 30 parts of water and a little soda. This must be allowed to dry in the air, and then the wood is to be painted over with another solution made of 1 part of bichromate of potash and 30 parts of water. By a little difference in the mode of treatment and by varying the strength of the solutions, various shades of color may be given with these materials, which will be permanent and tend to preserve the wood.

Staining Oak

According to Neidling, a beautiful orange-yellow tone, much admired in a chest at the Vienna Exhibition, may be imparted to oak wood by rubbing it in a warm room with a certain mixture until it acquires a dull polish, and then coating it after an hour with thin polish, and repeating the coating of polish to improve the depth and brilliancy of the tone. The ingredients for the rubbing mixture are about three ounces of tallow, three-fourths of an ounce of wax, add one pint of oil of turpentine, mixed by heating together and stirring.

Darkening Oak Framing

Take one ounce of carbonate of soda, and dissolve in half pint boiling water; take a sponge or piece of clean rag, saturate it in the solution and pass gently over the wood to be darkened, so that it is wet evenly all over; let it dry for 24 hours. Try first on an odd piece of wood to see color; if too dark, make the solution weaker by adding more water; if not dark enough, give another coat. This may always be kept ready for use in a bottle corked up.

Imitation Rosewood

Boil one-half pound of logwood in three pints of water till it is of a very dark red; add one-half ounce of salt of tartar. Stain the work with the liquor while it is boiling hot, giving three coats; then, with a painter's graining brush, form streaks with the following liquor: Boil one-half-pound of logwood chips in two quarts of water; add one ounce of pearlash, and apply hot.