100 parts copper and 10 aluminium, measured by weighing, when combined is a durable alloy, which may be forged and worked in the same manner as copper, and is the same colour as pale gold. 80 parts copper, 19 zinc, and 1 aluminium, form a good durable alloy. (See also iii. 11.)
Brass, 112 lb.; zinc, 14 lb.; tin, 7 lb. (See also iii. 21.)
Copper, 24 lb.; tin, 2% lb.; and antimony, 8 lb. Melt the copper first, then add the tin, and lastly the antimony. It should be first run into ingots, then melted and cast in the form required for the boxes.
50 parts copper, 4 zinc.
6 parts copper; 4 zinc. Can be rolled and worked at a red heat. (See also iii. 29.)
The or-molu of the brass-founder, popularly known as an imitation of red gold, is extensively used by French workmen in metals. It is generally found in combination with grate and stove work. It is composed of a greater portion of copper and less zinc than ordinary brass, is cleaned readily by means of acid, and is burnished with facility. To give this material a rich appearance, it is not unfrequently brightened up after "dipping" by means of a scratch brush, the action of which helps to produce a very brilliant gold-like surface. It is protected from tarnish by the application of lacquer.
Copper, 5 lb.; zinc, 1 lb.
Good: 150 tin, 10 antimony, 3 copper.
Second: 140 tin, 9 antimony, 3 copper.
Handles: 140 tin, 5 antimony, 2 copper.
Lamps: 300 tin, 15 antimony,4 copper.
Registers: 100 tin, 8 antimony, 8 hardening.
Spinning: 100 tin, 4 antimony, 4 hardening.
Spoons: 100 tin, 10 antimony, 5 hardening.
Spouts: 140 tin, 6 antimony, 3 copper.
Hardening: 2 copper, 1 tin.
(See also iii. 24.)
Bronze. Statuary. - (a) Copper, 88 parts; tin, 9 parts; zinc, 2 parts; lead, 1 part.
(6) Copper, 88 1/2 parts; tin, 5 parts; zinc, 10 1/2 parts; lead, 2 parts.
(c) Copper, 90 parts; tin, 9 parts; lead, 1 part.
(d) Copper, 91 parts; tin, 9 parts.
(a) Copper, 89 parts; tin, 8 parts; zinc, 3 parts.
(6) Copper, 95 parts; tin, 5 parts.
Cutting - Instruments - Copper, 100 parts; tin, 14 parts.
(a) Copper, 82 parts; tin, 3 parts; zinc, 18 parts; and lead, 2 parts.
(6) Copper, 83 parts; zinc, 17 parts; tin, 1 part; lead, 1/2 part.
(See also iii. 17.)
98 lead to 2 arsenic. For round shot the fused metal is dropped from a high elevation in a shot tower into a basin of water; or thrown down a stack of limited height, in which a strong draught of air is produced by a blast machine. (Sec also iii. 35.)
Copper, 20 lb.; lead, 8 lb.; litharge, 1 oz.; antimony, 3 oz.
(a) 100 parts of copper with about 25 of tin. To give this compound the sonorous property in the highest degree, the piece should be ignited after it is cast, and then plunged immediately into cold water.
(6) 80 parts of copper and 20 of tin, hammered out with frequent annealing.
(c) An alloy of 78 of copper and 22 of tin answers better, and can be rolled out.
Melt equal parts of tin and lead. This alloy is cast instead of rolled in the desired form of sheets, in order to obtain a crystallised metal, which produces a finer tone. The sheets are formed by casting the metal on a horizontal table, the thickness being regulated by the height of a. rib or bridge at one end, over which the superfluous metal flows off. The sheets thus obtained are planed with a carpenter's plane, bent up, and soldered.
A very fine silver-looking metal is composed of 100 lb. of tin, 8 of regulus of antimony, 1 of bismuth, and 4 of copper.
(a) Copper, 32 oz.; tin, 2 oz.; zinc, 1 oz.
(b) Copper, 64 lb.; tin, 1 lb.
Tin, 3 oz.; copper, 4 lb.
(b) Less tin and a small quantity of arsenic added to the alloy forms a white hard metal of high lustre.
(c) 2 lb. copper, 1 lb. tin, 1 oz. arsenic form a good speculum metal.
(d) An alloy of 32 copper, 16.5 tin, 4 brass, 1.25 arsenic, is hard, white, and of brilliant lustre. (See also iii. 32.)
(a) 91.4 parts copper, 5.53 zinc, 1.7 tin, 1.37 lead.
(ft) Copper 80, tin 20.
Malleable iron, 1 lb., heat to whiteness; add 5 oz. regulus of antimony, and 24 lb. tin.
(a) Copper, 16 lb.; tin, 1 lb.; zinc, 1 lb.
(6) Red. Copper, 10 lb.; zinc, 1 lb.
(a) Iron or steel, 8 oz.; antimony, 16 oz.; nitre, 3 oz. Melt and harden 8 oz. tin with 1 oz. of this compound.
(6) Antimony, 4 oz.; arsenic, 1 oz. tin, 2 lb.
9 parts lead to 1 antimony forms common type metal; 7 lead to 1 antimony is used for large and soft type; 6 lead and 1 antimony for large type; 5 lead and 1 antimony for middle type; 4 lead and 1 antimony for small type; and 3 lead to 1 antimony for the smallest kinds of type. (See also iii. 33.)
White Metal-(a) Tin, 82; lead, 18; antimony, 5; zinc, 1; and copper, 4 parts.
(6) Hard. Sheet brass, 32 oz.; lead, 2 oz.; tin, 2 oz; zinc, 1 oz.
Pure copper, 100 parts; zinc, or preferably tin, 17 parts; magnesia, 6 parts; sal-ainmoniac, 3.6 parts; quicklime, 1.8 part; tartar, 9 parts. The copper is first melted; the magnesia, sal - ammoniac, lime, and tartar are then added, separately and by degrees, in the form of powder; the whole is now briskly stirred for about half an hour, so as to mix thoroughly, and then the zinc is added in sma 1 grains by throwing it on the surface and stirring till it is entirely fused; the crucible is then covered, and Che fusion is maintained for about 35 minutes. The surface is then skimmed and the alloy is ready for casting. It has a fine grain, is malleable, and takes a splendid polish. Does not corrode readily, and for many purposes is an excellent substitute for gold. When tarnished, its brilliancy can be restored by a little acidulated water.