By burnishing, the roughness of an object is flattened down until the surface is smooth and polished, like a looking-glass. Burnishing is an important operation for electro-deposits which consist of a multitude of small crystals with intervals between them, and with facets reflecting the light in every direction. The deposited metal is hardened, and forced into the pores of the underlying metal, and the durability is thus increased to such an extent that with the same amount of silver a burnished article will last twice as long as one which has not been so treated. The instruments employed for burnishing are made of different materials, and must be of great hardness and a perfect polish. Such are hardened cast steel, agate, flint-, and blood-stone. For metallic electro-deposits, steel and blood-stones are especially employed. There are several qualities of blood-stone; its grain should be close, hard, and without seams or veins; it should leave no white lines on the burnished parts, nor take off any metal, and its colour should be of an intense black-red. The steel must be fine and close grained, and perfectly polished. Should the polish of any burnishing tool alter by use, it is restored by friction upon a skin or leather attached to a wooden block, which is fixed to the bench.

The leather is covered with polishing rouge in impalpable powder, or, preferably, with pure alumina obtained by ealcining ammonia alum in a forge fire. Venetian tripoli, rotten-stone, tin putty, emery, or many other hard substances finely powdered may be employed. The burnishing tools are of various shapes, such as a lance, a tooth,' a knife, a half-sphere, or a dog's tongue, and a considerable stock is necessary. The burnishing is divided into two distinct operations; the first consists in roughing, and the second in finishing. The tools for the first have a sharp edge, whilst for the second operation they have a rounded surface. The tools for the hand or the lathe are fixed by copper ferrules into short, round wooden handles, so that the hand is not influenced by their weight; the tools for the arm or the vice are fastened to wooden handles sufficiently long to rest their slender part upon the arm or the shoulder, the stouter lower portion is grasped by the hand. The burnishing tools and the objects must be frequently wetted by certain solutions, some of which facilitate, the sliding of the instrument, or with others which have a chemical action upon the shade of the burnished articles.

Of the first are pure water, solutions of soap, decoctions of linseed, and infusions of the roots of marsh-mallow or liquorice; the second includes wine-lees, cream tartar, vinegar, alum in water. When burnishing gold applied upon electro-deposits of copper, as in gilding with a dead lustre by that method, use pure water for fear of producing a disagreeable red shade. A solution of green soap is sometimes pre ferred by operators, although when old it imparts an unpleasant tinge, owing to the sulphides of the liquor. When the burnishing is completed, the surface is wiped longitudinally with a soft and old calico rag. The polish obtained by burnishing is called black, when it reflects the rays like a mirror; and should the presence of mercury or a bad deposit prevent the tool from producing a bright surface, the object is said to be greasy. Articles which hare been previously polished, and which generally receive a very trifling deposit, are not burnished, but rubbed with chamois leather and the best quality polishing-rouge. Too thick or too rapid electro-deposits cannot be burnished, but must be polished by rubbing with a leather and a mixture of oil and powdered pumice, tripoli, or tin putty. Coarse powders are used at the beginning, and impalpable ones at the end of the operation.

Polished silver deposits are more agreeable to the eye than burnished ones; but the hardening of the latter renders them more durable.

Nielled Silver

This is a kind of inlaid enamel work, and is obtained by the sulphuration of certain parts of a silver object. But instead of being direct, this is produced by inlaying the silver surface with a sulphide of the same metal prepared beforehand. For preparing the niel, heat a certain proportion of sulphur in a deep crucible; heat a certain quantity of silver, copper, and lead in another crucible, and when melted pour into the fused sulphur, which transforms these metals into sulphides; then add a little sal ammoniac, remove from the crucible, pulverise for use. First crucible - flowers of sulphur, 27 oz.; sal ammoniac, 2 3/4 oz. Second crucible, which after fusion is poured into the first - silver, 1/2 oz.; copper, 1 1/2 oz.; lead, 2 3/4 oz. .

(a) After having reduced the niel to a fine powder, mix with a small proportion of a solution of sal ammoniac, hollow out the engraving upon a silver surface, and cover the whole, hollows and reliefs, with the composition. The article is then heated in a muffle until the composition solders to the metal. Uncover the pattern by a level polish, when the silver will appear as over a black ground. This method is costly, as each article must be engraved.

(6) Engrave in relief a steel plate, and press it against the silver plate between two hard bodies. The copy is hollow, and ready to receive the niel. A great many copies may be obtained from the same matrix.

Old Silvering

To imitate old artistic productions made of solid silver, the groundwork and hollow portions not subject to friction are covered with a blackish-red earthy coat, the parts in relief remain with a bright red lustre. Mix a thin paste of finely-powdered plumbago with essence of turpentine, to which a small proportion of red ochre may be added to imitate the copper tinge of certain old silverware; smear this all over the articles. After drying, gently rub with a soft brush, and the reliefs are set off by cleaning with a rag dipped in spirits of wine. Old silver is easily removed, and the brightness of the metal restored, by a hot solution of caustic potash, potassium cyanide, or benzole. To give the old silver tinge to small articles, such as buttons and rings, throw them into the above paste, rub in a bag with a large quantity of dry fir-wood saw-dust until the desired shade is obtained.