In all cases, if the vat smells slightly of lime, it is a proof that it has enough; if it smells very strongly of lime, give 1 1/2 lb. of potash, and 2 lb. madder; then, if it smells of lime instead of woad, cool by taking off the covering, and a considerable quantity of the lime will evaporate: heat up again, and put in 30 or 35 lb. of woad; when hot, rake well up; look at the vat in 6 or 8 hours, if the upper part of the liquor looks yellow, rake up, and if it does not darken, use 2 quarts of lime; when you rake up, stir the bottom at all times, except when heating up; 3 hours is long enough for a woad vat to settle. In dyeing cotton or silk on this vat, it is safest to work it cold, or at most lukewarm.


For 50 lb. or 200 yards. Prepare with 2 1/2 lb. sumach, acetate of iron, 2° Tw., and lime, 1° Tw. Dye with 18 lb. redwood and 4 lb. fustic; 24 hours in the snmach, lift, and run through the iron tub, then through the lime; repeat in each tub, and wash in 3 waters; then scald or boil the wood; decant into another tub; enter and winch for 20 minutes; air out, and repeat; if not dark enough, add a little logwood; then sadden with 6 or 8 oz. copperas.

Brown, Madder

For 40 lb. Boil or scald 10 lb. sumach; lay the goods in it for 24 hours; lift, and decant into a tub, containing 60 gallons water, 1 quart acetate of iron, and 1 quart mordant. Enter; turn for half an hour; lift, and wash in 2 waters; then dye with 10 lb. best crop madder; enter cold, and bring to the spring.

Brown, Dark, With Catechu

For 200 yards. Boil 30 lb. catechu; enter the cloth as it leaves the singeing-work; winch it in the catechu for some time, and let it down into the boiler all night; in the morning light a fire under the boiler; lift the cloth, and give 2 runs through acetate of iron; wash well out of the iron; have the boiler up, and give another run through it at the boil, 1 hour; lift, and give other 2 runs of iron, when it will be quite black; stripe with lime to the shade required.

Brown, Light Catechu

For 50 lb. Boil 20 lb. catechu in one boiler, 5 lb. chrome in another. Enter in the catechu first; work 20 minutes, and wring out; then through the chrome, 10 minutes, and wring out; though catechu again; giving shot about till dark enough; finishing with catechu.


For 40 lb. Boil 6 lb. fustic; scald 2 1/2 lb. limawood; 2 lb. sumach. Decant into a wooden vessel, capable of containing 100 gallons; reduce with cold water to handling heat; enter; 6 turns; wring out; sadden with 8 oz. copperas; 4 turns; wring out again, and give 4 oz. bluestone.


For 50 lb. Boil 5 lb. fustic and 3 lb. limawood. Add 2 lb. alum. Decant the fustic and limawood into a large tub; reduce to handling heat; enter and work 15 minutes; if not dark enough, add 8 oz. logwood; then wash and dry.


For 40 lb. Preparation, nitrate of iron, '4° Tw. Dyeing 1 1/2 lb. prusfiiate of potash, 45 lb. fustic, 8 oz. extract of indigo. Raising, 1 pint vitriol, 5 lb. alum. Turn in an iron tub tor 20 minutes; wring out; run through cold water lightly, wring and shake well out; dissolve the prussiate; put it into a tub of cold water, 4 or 5 turns; lift, and give 2 gills sulphuric acid; 4 or 5 turns more; run through cold water, and wring out; repeat in the iron and prussiate tubs as before dyeing; give the fustic moderately warm in a clean liquor; turn 30 minutes; lift, and raise in the same liquor with 5 lb. alum and 6 oz. extract of indigo; winch in this till you get the required shade.

Green, Fast Chrome

For 50 lb. 10 1/2 lb. chrome, 5 lb. acetate of lead. Blue on the blue vat; wash in 2 waters, and give a warm sour; then dissolve and put the lead and chrome into separate tubs; enter in the lead tub first; wring out; then through the chrome; continue from the one to the other till dark enough.


100 yards. Scald 1 lb. logwood and 2 lb. sumach. Decant both into a tub of sufficient size; cool to 150° F.; add 2 gills vitriol; winch in this 20 minutes; lift and run slightly through acetate of iron; wash in 2 waters, then give 1 lb. logwood as before; raise with a pint of muriate of tin; wash in 2 waters; then, in a tub of cold water, put 4 oz. extract of indigo; enter, and winch in this 15 minutes; lift, give l water, and dry.

Lavender Vat

50 lb. Boil 14 lb. logwood in 10 or 12 gallons water; decant the clear into a 60-gallon tub containing 40 gallons of water; when it is quite cold, add 45 lb. lavender spirits; rake up occasionally for 3 or 4 hours; next day it will be fit for working, and the glass will stand at 6° Tw. This will dye lilac; add neutralised paste for lavender. Renovate with raw muriatic acid till the glass stands at 6° Tw.


100 yards. Scald 1 1/2 lb. logwood, 2 lb. sumach. Decant, and work like the last; sadden, and top with logwood; raise with muriate of tin.


For 30 lb. yarn, or 250 yards cloth. Bleed 7 lb. safflowers in 50 gallons soft water; dissolve 2 lb. tartar in 3 gallons hot water; enter the yarn in the safflower, and give 4 turns; lift, and put in one-half of the tartar; enter; 4 turns more; lift again, and put in all the tartar, and work in it till you get the required shade.

Red, Barwood

For 40 lb. 10 lb. sumach; spirit vat, 2 1/2° Tw.; 40 lb. barwood; 1 quart red spirits; done in the same manner as limawood red.

Red, Claret

For 50 lb. Preparation, 12} lb. sumach; spirit tub, 3° Tw. Dyeing, 15 1/2 lb. limawood; 2 lb. logwood, to blue. Raising, 1 quart red spirits for cotton. 8 to 10 hours in the sumach; work 1 or 2 hours in the spirit tub; wash out of it in 3 waters; boil the limawood and logwood; decant into a large tub; winch 30 - minutes; lift, and give the raising; enter again for 15 minutes; lift, wash, and dry.

Red", Crimson With Cochineal

For 50 lb. Prepare with 15 lb. sumach and 10 lb. alum. Dye with 6 1/4 lb. cochineal. Twenty-four hours in the sumach; lift; make up a hot solution of alum; winch in that 2 or 3 hours; lift; wash in 2 waters; then boil the cochineal; put off the boil; enter, and winch till full enough; then wash and dry.