Red: Claret

Prepare with alum like the last; boil or scald. For 10 yards. Limawood, 1 1/4 lb.; logwood, 3 3/4 oz. Decant the clear of both liquors into a tub of sufficient size; ente, and winch for 30 minutes; air out, and repeat; when dark enough, wash and dry.

Red: Crimson

For 10 yards. Bot-toming, cudbear, 1 1/2 oz.; preparation, tartar, 1 1/4 oz.; scarlet spirits, 3 1/2 oz.; dyeing, cochineal, 2 oz. Boil or scald the cudbear; winch in this 30 minutes; then prepare and dye as before.

Red: Pink

For 10 yards. Bottoming, blue archil, 1/2 oz.; dyeing, safflower, 2 oz.; raising, tartaric acid, 1/2 oz. Put the archil into 100 gallons boiling water; winch in this 15 minutes; lift; bleed; then refine the safflower with cotton; make up a safflower liquor of 100 gallons; enter and winch 15 minutes; lift; put in half the raising; return and winch 10 minutes; lift again and add the other half of the raising; return for 10 minutes more; then wash in 1 water; harden with a little tartaric in another, and dry.

Rose colour may be made in this way, by giving more stuff.

To Prepare Safflower - Steep 2} lb. safflower all night in water; in the morning rub the cakes between the hands, so that it may be all broken; then put it into a bag or close sieve; stand with it under a good run of water until the particles are all disengaged from each other, and purged of impurities; then put 20 or 30 gallons of water into a large tub, add 1/2 lb. soda dissolved, and put in the safflower; stir it up, and let it bleed 30 or 40 minutes; then strain it through the bag into a second tub; if not well enough bled, repeat in the first tub with a little more soda. To refine safflower after being bled, - immerse 3 or 4 lb. cotton yarn or cloth in it; in 10 minutes lift, and add a little tartaric; return for 10 minutes; add a little tartaric again; return for 10 minutes more; lift, and add the tartaric a third time, at which time it must do no more than taste slightly sour; then wash in 2 or 3 waters, after which it must be bled in a tub of clean water with a little soda; then make up this liquor with water for dyeing.

Red: Purple

The best purples are made upon the purple vat. For a red shade, wash in 2 cold waters; for a blue shade, wash in 2 hot waters. Another but inferior method is, to prepare with alum, dye with logwood, and raise with double muriate of tin.

Red: Royal Blue Purple

For whatever depth of colour required, winch upon the purple vat, wash in 2 warm waters; then put a little extract of indigo into a tub of cold water; add a little sulphuric acid; enter and work in this till you get the required shade, then wash in cold water, and dry.

Red: Rose Colour With Cochineal

For 10 yards. Bottoming, blue archil, 3/4 oz.; preparation, tartar, 3/4 oz.; scarlet spirits, 2 1/2 oz.; dyeing, cochineal, fully 1 1/2 oz. Bottom with archil; lift; dissolve the tartar, and put it and the spirits into 100 gallons water; winch in this for some time; then let it lie 12 hours (if this preparation is made hot, 3 or 4 hours will do); pound, and then boil the cochineal; put off the boil; lift out of the preparation, and enter; winch till the liquor cools, and the colour will be full enough.

Salmon Colour

For 10 yards. An-natto, 1 1/4 oz.; cudbear, 4 dr. Boil the annatto; then add the cudbear; put off the boil; enter and winch 30 minutes; wash in 2 waters; then dry.


For 10 yards. Bottoming, annatto, fully 1 1/2 oz.; preparation, tartar, 1 1/4 oz.; scarlet spirits, 3 1/2 oz.; dyeing, cochineal, 2 1/2 oz. Bottom with the annatto, 212° F.; winch 15 or 20 minutes, and it should be a full orange; then give the preparation and cochineal as for rose colour.


For 100 yards. 8 oz. cudbear, 2 lb. logwood, 1 lb. tartar. Bottom with the cudbear; lift; boil the logwood; decant into a tub of sufficient size; enter and winch in this for 15 minutes; lift and raise with the tartar at twice, then wash and dry.


For 100 yards. 3 lb. fustic, 7 1/2 oz. logwood, 2 1/2 oz. cudbear, 2 oz. copperas. Use as for Drab.

Yellow: Amber

For 10 yards. Annatto, 1 1/2 oz.; bark, l 1/4 oz.; muriate of tin, 2 1/2 oz. Bottom with the annatto, and top with the bark and muriate of tin. Use as for Orange.

Yellow: Buff

For 10 yards. Annatto, 1 1/2 oz.; vitriol, 1 1/2 oz. Give the annatto at 212° F.; when full enough, lift; wash in 2 waters; then raise with the vitriol.

Yellow: Chamois

For 10 yards. Annatto, 9 1/2 dr.; fustic, 6 1/2 oz.; madder, 6 1/2 dr.; cudbear, 3 1/4 dr. Bottom with the annatto, 212° F.; wash in. 1 water; boil the fustic, madder, and cudbear together; put off the boil, and enter; winch 15 minutes; if not full enough, air out and repeat; then wash and dry.

Yellow: Cream Colour

For 10 yards. Boil annatto, 9 1/2 dr.; vitriol, 1 oz. Work in the same manner as Buff.

Yellow: Oranoe

For 10 yards. Annatto, 1 3/4 oz.; bark, 1 1/4 oz.; muriate of tin, 1 1/2 oz. Give a good body of annatto, 212° F.; wash in 1 water; then top with the bark and muriate of tin.

Yellow: Straw

For 10 yards. Annatto, 6 1/2 dr.; barks, 1 1/4 oz.; muriate of tin, 1 1/2 oz. Give the annatto on the bottom 212° F.; 1 water out, and then give the barks and muriate of tin, same heat.

Before using annatto, it must be boiled with half its weight of American ashes, in the least possible quantity of soft water. This applies to every process where annatto is used.

Ammonia Paste

1 quart strong ammonia, 1 ditto water, 2 lb. ground cochineal. Stir them all well together in a stone pot; tie up the mouth of it tightly, and set it in some warm place,' such as the flue of a stove, for two days, and it will be fit for use.

Indigo, Extract Of

1 lb. best ground indigo, 6 lb. double vitriol. Mix together; let stand 48 hours in a stone pot; then put the vessel into a warm bath till properly dissolved; take 6 gallons water, 170° F.; add the indigo slowly, filter through woollen cloth, covered with brown paper, into a wooden vessel; what remains on the paper put away, as it is only earth; then add your liquor, 4 lb. common salt, 1 lb. pearl-ash. Let it stand till it ceases fermenting, then filter again through brown paper, and what remains on the paper is pure extract of indigo; there should be 12 lb. of it.