Ground, deep ivory black. Put on veins of white-lead, yellow ochre, and burnt and raw sienna, with a camel-hair brush. The spaces between the veins must be glazed over with a thin coat of grey or white, over which pass a few white veins. The veins may also be put on with gold leaf. Another method is to have a yellow ground, streaked with broad ribbons of black, in which fine veins are obtained by drawing a sharp piece of wood along them whilst wet, so as to expose the yellow beneath.
White ground, and with dark veins, put on with a marbling crayon, and softened while the ground is wet. Or, when the ground is dry, cover it with a thin coat of white-lead, and put the veins in with a camel-hair pencil. Blend while wet.
Ground, a light blue; when dry, take blue with a small piece of white-lead and some Prussian blue, and dab on in patches, leaving portions of the ground to show between. Blend together with a softener; next put on white veins in every direction, leaving large open spaces to be filled up with a pale yellow or gold paint. Finish with fine white irregular threads.
Ground, lead colour, of which it will be necessary to give two or three coats. If the work is new, let it dry hard, rub it smooth with fine glass-paper after each coat, and do not rub the paint off the sharp edges of the wood. For the marbling, take lead colour such as used for the ground, thin it with turpentine, and rub a light coat over a small part of the work; and with a whitish colour form the small specks or fossil remains. Proceed, piece by piece, till the whole surface is covered, being careful to paint but a small part of the ground at once, so that the colours may have sufficient time to blend together while wet, otherwise the work will appear harsh. Then with a small sash tool, put in faint, broad veins of the thin ground colour, and numerous very fine veins over the whole surface of the work, crossing each other in every direction. Then make the colour a little lighter, by adding white-lead, and with a feather pass over the broad veins in the same direction, forming streams of threads. With thin white, and with a camel-hair pencil go partly over the same vein with short thick touches, then with a fine striping pencil. When the work is hard, it should be smoothed with very fine glass-paper before being varnished.
The first layer of veins should be very faint, so as to be scarcelyper-ceptiblc; for, as the lighter shades are put on, the former vetns will appear sunk from the surface of the work, which will give a good effect where the work is exposed to close inspection.
(a) Grey ground, with white and black spots.
(6) Venetian red and white for the ground, with white, black, and vermilion spots.
The spots are put on in several ways; a sponge may be charged with the marbling colour and dabbed on the work, or a common brush may be struck against a stick held at a little distance from the work, so as to throw off blots and spots of colour.
Ground, a light buff. For marbling, mix stiff in boiled oil white-lead, Oxford ochre, and a little vermilion; grind burnt sienna very fine in boiled oil, and put it into another vessel; mix pure white stiff in oil, and keep this also separate. Thin these colours with turpentine, and have a brush for each. Take the buff brush moderately full of colour, and dab it on in patches, varying as much as possible; take another brush and fill in the spaces between with sienna. With a softener blend the edges together, making them as soft as possible. Draw a few thin white veins over the work with a hair pencil, run in a few thin lines of sienna, and soften.
Mix the ground the same as for mahogany, with red-lead, Venetian red, and a little chrome yellow, thinned with equal parts of oil and turpentine; lake or vermilion may bo substituted for the Venetian red, if a brilliant tint is desired. Whilst the ground is wet, dab on some spots of white, soften with a softening brush, and other colours may be applied in the same manner. When dry, put on the veins with a camel-hair brush.
(a) Ground, purple-brown and rose-pink. Grind vermilion and white-lead separately in turpentine, and add a little gold 6ize to each colour to bind it. More turpentine must be added before the colour is applied. When the ground is dry, fill a large brush with vermilion, squeeze out nearly all the colour by scraping the brush on the edge of the palette knife; hold a rod in the left hand, strike the handle of the brush against it, so a? to throw small red spots on to the work till the surface is covered.' Make the colour lighter by adding white-lead, and use as before. Then with clear thin white throw on very fine spots, and when dry put in a few white veins across the work. This marble may be imitated in distemper in precisely the same manner as in oil.
(b) The ground is Venetian red, with a little vermilion and white. For marbling, add a little more white to the ground colour, and sprinkle over the first coat. When dry, repeat the splashing with a mixture of Venetian red and vermilion, and then with white in very fine spots. Form opaque white veins across the work, and transparent threads in various directions. This must be done when the work is dry and hard, with a sable pencil, and the threads drawn with a feather. For each separate colour use a different brush.
(a) Ground, Oxford ochre and white-lead. Use burnt and raw sienna, white, black, and a little lake, for marbling. These colours should be laid on as a transparent glaze, and marked and softened while wet. The colours should be properly softened with a badger brush.
(6) Ground, raw sienna or yellow ochre. When dry, mix raw sienna with white-lead, have ready also some white paint, put in broad transparent tints of hite and yellow, and while wet blend them together with a softener. Mix Venetian red and a little black, and put in some broad veins in the same direction as the patchy tints run; for the darker veins take a mixture of Venetian red, lake, and black, and draw them over the first layer of veins with a feather, in fine threads, running to a centre, and in transparent veins in different directions. Mix some Prussian blue and lake, and put in the darkest and finest veins over those before laid on. Put in a few touches of burnt sienna between the fine veins, which are formed into small masses. All the colours should be ground in spirit of turpentine, and mixed with sufficient gold size to bind them.
A friable, porous charcoal, leaving very little ash, are preferred. Black alder, spindle tree, poplar, chestnut, vine-stalks and willow, are most esteemed. Hemp-stalks, fibres of flax, and old linen also yield a very good charcoal. Remove the bark, leaves, and smaller branches, selecting branches 1 to 2 inches in thickness. These are cut into lengths of 5 or 6 feet, and tied in bundles, weighing about 30 lb. The wood will not be injured by exposure to the rain, as that tends to remove extractive matter. The carbonisation is effected either in pits, or in cast-iron cylinders. The yield of charcoal is 18 to 20 per cent., when prepared in pits; and 35 to 40 per cent. when prepared in cast-iron cylinders. The process of manufacture is similar to that adopted for ordinary charcoal, the pits or cylinders, however, replacing the ordinary kiln. If the charcoal is intended for sporting powder, it may be withdrawn whilst of a brown colour, when it is called "red charcoal." This would make a powder too explosive for war purposes. The latter is prepared from the black or distilled charcoal, which is more completely calcined, and is used by all English makers.
The best quality has a bluish black colour, is light, firm, and slightly flexible, and should be used immediately it is made, as it rapidly deteriorates by keeping. Charcoal that has been too highly burned for war powder is used in the manufacture of blasting powder, as that need not be so inflammable.