Among the items of expense in the list of the amateur photographer's supplies will be found trays for developing, fixing, intensifying, toning, etc., and the temptation is often great to make one or two trays answer all purposes; but modern photography forbids the double use of trays, so that the operator must either purchase or make trays for himself. In Fig. 74 is seen, in the upper figure, a pasteboard blank, which, when creased as indicated in the dotted lines, bent up and fastened at the corners by pieces of cloth glued inside and outside as shown, forms a foundation for a serviceable tray. All that is required to complete the job is to fill the pores of the pasteboard and cloth with paraffin. There are two ways of doing this. One is to dip the tray into paraffin melted in a pan of suitable size; the other way is to melt the paraffin by means of a hot iron, and allow it to drop on the pasteboard, afterwards spreading it with the hot iron. In either case a liberal supply of paraffin should be left in the corners.
Paraffin candles will furnish the material for saturating the tray when paraffin in bulk is not available.
In Fig. 75 is represented a simple, easily made, and efficient negative rack. It consists of thin wire frames pivoted to the base-board, and provided with corrugations for receiving the edges of the plates.
In Fig. 76 is shown a method of dark-room illumination, which permits of examining the negative thoroughly during the process of development without unduly exposing the plate. It consists of a two-candle power incandescent lamp attached to a handle, and inclosed by a hemispherical reflector, closed at the front with a disc of dark-ruby glass. The lamp is held near the plate. All the light is thrown downward, so that the eyes receive only the light reflected from the plate. Furthermore, only a small section of the plate is exposed to the light at any time. When the lamp is not in use in the manner described, it is either laid face down on the table, or suspended so as to light the dark room.