If the latter method be adopted, a flange must be soldered to the top of the lamp, the body being slipped over this flange. It will not be amiss to insert a small piece of ruby glass in the side of the body, to serve the double purpose of giving light, and of allowing the height of the flame to be seen. Ventilation roust be provided for by holes punched around the bottom of e; light is prevented from escaping through these holes, which need not be very large, by soldering a protector to the base of the body, as shown. This is, of course, pierced with holes, but so spaced as not to come opposite the first series. In one side of 6 a slot is cut, as shown, to receive the frame in which the negative is placed. To the top and bottom of 6, on the inside, narrow strips of wood are fastened, forming a groove just the width of the thickness of this frame. The frame is not shown in the cut, as its construction and use are sufficiently plain. It is simply a wooden frame, with central opening of the size of the largest negative likely to be enlarged. The negative fits in a rabbet, and is held in place by small brass buttons. Suitable kits are provided for holding smaller negatives.

The condensers should have a diameter somewhat greater than the longest dimension of the largest plate likely to be enlarged. Large condensers of fine glass are expensive, but the cheaper grade can be employed if a sheet of finely-ground glass be mounted between the convex surface of the lenses. A pair of 5 in. condensers will be the most generally useful. It is impossible to give dimensions exactly, as they will vary in individual cases. 6 has the same outside measurements as the camera to which it is to be fitted. It may be 3 to 6 in. deep, c will have a diameter corresponding to that of the condensing lenses, and should be about 3 in. deep. The part of d which covers c should be of the same depth, while that part by which it is connected with e need not be more than 2 in. deep, d can be telescoped over c, to adjust the flame of the lamp to the focus of the condensers. The lamp can be cheaply purchased of any dealer in lanterns. Any lens that will cover the negative can be used; rapid rectilinears of short focus will answer every purpose. Should the draw of the bellows not be sufficient to give the required amplification, the lens can be mounted on the front of a cone-shaped box, fitting into the front of the camera.

The frame which carries the negative should, when pushed in, completely fill the slot in 6, in order to prevent the egress of white light. This is easily effected by fastening thin battens to both sides of the carrier in such a way as to be in contact with the camera side when the carrier is pushed home. If the collar c is mounted on a board fitting into a rabbet on the back of 6, and battens are fastened around 6, about 1 in. from the back, enlargements can be made by daylight by removing c and substituting a wooden frame carrying a ground glass. The camera then assumes the form of the well-known Eastman daylight enlarging camera. - (W. H. Burbank.)

Grained Negatives For Zinc Etching Without A Screen

This is done by coating the plates with an emulsion containing sulphate of baryta in very fine powder, and well shaken up before coating. Pictures are taken upon these plates and developed and fixed in the usual way, but the image, instead of being smooth and nice, will be covered with myriads of fine pinholes. These negatives are used for printing on the zinc in bitumen, then etched in relief for type blocks. Instead of sulphate of baryta, carbonate of soda, etc, may be used in the emulsion, and, after fixing, immersion in weak acid will develop the pinholes. The bromo-chloride emulsion may be used upon collotype plates,, followed by drying them in the oven at a high temperature, exposing under a reversed negative. Develop and ink up as for the paper; pull the transfers upon ordinary lithographic transfer-paper. To obtain a coarser grain, soaking in warm water will develop the reticulation. - (W. T. Wilkinson.)

Retouching Enlarged Negatives

The following method of retouching enlarged negatives is practised by a well-known photographic firm of Berlin. Papier vegetal is used for the purpose on account of its fineness and transparency. Two pieces of this paper of the size of the negative are cut out, one of them being mounted on the film side, the other one on the glass side of the negative. For mounting, the paper is at first slightly wetted, so that it will become quite tight after drying on the negative, when it is coated all round with glue, and transferred to the glass. In retouching, the larger portions of the negative which are too transparent are strengthened on the paper pasted on the glass side of the negative with powdered black chalk or plumbago, by means of a leather or paper stump. On the paper mounted on the film side of the negative, the flesh portions are equalised with the brush and Indian ink, bold effects of light being at the same time put in where it seems necessary. • It is not at all necessary to work very accurately, since the light produces a softness of effect which could only be equalled by the most laborious retouching of the ordinary kind.

The enlarged negative is then printed in the usual manner in the printing frame (H. E. Gunther.)

Repairing Broken Negatives

Place the negative, gelatine side down, on a plate rather larger than the negative. Coat the edges of the fragments with warm Canada balsam; join them together, using strong pressure. Remove the excess of balsam, then cover the negative with another plate exactly the same size, and previously coated on one side with this varnish: 3 grm. sandarac, 3 grm. mastic in tears, 50 grm. sulphuric ether, 25 grm.,benzole (pure). Lift together the three plates, turn them over, remove the large one that has served as a support, scrape off from the gelatine side the balsam that may have, exuded, then surround the two plates with strips of gummed paper. Heat slightly the fragments before joining them together. This process will yield a print upon which no trace of breaking is to be seen.