The recipes under this head are mainly derived from a most useful little manual by S. Christopher on 'Cleaning and Scouring.' (Spon.)

Cleaning and scouring are, with dyers, divided into "English" and "French." The reason of these two names does not appear, as one method is as much practised by each of the two nations as the other. That known as the English method consists in scouring and washing the article to be cleaned, with a strong solution of soap, or soap and pearlash, and afterwards well rinsing it in pure water. This is the only thorough method of cleaning, and should always be adopted when the fabric is much soiled and dirty. For cleaning carpets and hearth-rugs, the English method is divided into thorough cleaning and dry cleaning. The difference between these two consists more in the manner of carrying out the several operations than in the processes themselves. In dry cleaning, when once the operation has been commenced it must be continued until the fabric - carpet or rug - is as dry as it can be got by rubbing with dry cloths; and care must also be taken that the liquor does not soak through and wet the back. In thorough cleaning, the carpet is saturated with the soap liquor.

French cleaning is done with camphine, and is especially applicable for silks or satins which are not much soiled; as if used with care and despatch, it will not injure the most delicate colours.