(1) Get the wood clean, have some Vandyke brown and burnt sienna ground in water, mix it in strong size, put on with a whitewash or new paint brush as evenly as you can. When dry, give two coats of copal or oak varnish.

(2) If the floor is a new one, have the border well washed. Polish with glass-paper, rubbing always with the grain of the wood. Varnish with good oak varnish, put colouring matter into the varnish to suit your taste, but umber is best; if the floor is old and blackened, paint it.

(3) If old floors, you will not make much of staining anything but black. The floor is to be well washed (lime and soda is best - no soap), the dye painted ou, and, when dry, sized over and varnished with elastic oak varnish.

(4) Take 1/2 lb. logwood chips, boil them briskly for 1/2 hour in about 5 qt. rain-water, and strain through muslin.

To this liquor add 6 oz. of annatto (in the form of cake - not the roll); add also 1 lb. of yellow wax cut up in very small pieces. Place these over the fire, and let the wax melt gently, stirring it all the while. When melted, take the mixture off the fire; do not let it boil. Then with a paint-brush lay it on the floor as hot as possible, brushing it always the way of the grain. Next day polish with a hard flat brush made of hair, which may have a strap nailed to the back of it in which to insert the foot. The floor is afterwards kept bright with beeswax alone, a little of which is melted and put on the brush. Take care that the floor is thoroughly dry before commencing operations.

(5) Melt some glue-size in a bottle; next get a piece of rag, roll it into a ball so that it will fit the hand nicely, cover this with a bit of old calico to make a smooth face; dip this into the size, and rub in a bit of brown umber; then go ahead with your floors, working the stuff light or dark as required. Keep the motion with the grain of wood; when dry, stiffen with polishers' glaze.

(6) Take Judson's dyes of the colour required, mix according to the instructions given with each bottle, and apply with a piece of rag, previously trying it on a piece of wood to see if colour would suit; rub with sandpaper to get off any roughness that may be raised with the damp, and varnish with fine pale hard varnish, then slightly sandpaper and varnish again. Another method is to boil 1 lb. logwood in an old boiler, then apply with a piece of rag where the stain is required; when thoroughly dry, sandpaper as before, and well rub with beeswax to polish. This last process looks best when finished, but it requires a lot of elbow grease for a few months, and is extremely durable. To prevent the stain running where you do not want it, paste some stiff paper.


(1) Mordant the wood with red liquor at 1° B. This is prepared by dissolving separately in water 1 part sugar of lead and 4 of alum free from iron; mix the solution,, and then add 1/32 part of soda crystals, and let settle overnight. The clear liquor is decanted off from the sediment of sulphate of lead, and is then diluted with water till it marks 1° B. The wood when mordanted is dyed green with berry liquor and extract of indigo, the relative proportions of which determine the tone of the green.

(2) Verdigris dissolved in 4 parts water.

(3) 4-2 oz. copper, cut up finely, are gradually dissolved in 13 oz. nitric acid (aquafortis), and the articles to be stained are boiled in this solution until they have assumed a fine green colour.


(1) Greys may be produced by boiling 17 oz. orchil paste for 1/2 hour in 7 pints water. The wood is first treated with this solution, and then, before it is dry, steeped in a beck of nitrate of iron at 1° B. An excess of iron gives a yellowish tone; otherwise a blue grey is produced, which may be completely converted into blue by means of a little potash.

(2) 1 part nitrate of silver dissolved in 50 of distilled water; wash over twice; then with hydrochloric acid, and afterwards with water of ammonia. The wood is allowed to dry in the dark, and then finished in oil and polished.