These embrace all articles which eat short and crisp.
Boil clarified sugar to crack, and pour it on an oiled marble stone; pound tartaric or citric acid to a fine powder, and strew about 1/2 or 3/4 oz. of the former, according to its quality, and less of the latter, to 7 lb. sugar; turn the edges over into the middle, and mix the acid by folding over, or by working as dough is moulded, but do not pull it; put in a tin rubbed over with oil or butter, and place under the stove to keep warm; then cut off a small piece at a time, and roll into a round pipe; cut off in small pieces-the size of drops, with shears, and let your assistant roll them round under his hand and flatten them. Mix with powdered sugar, sift from it, and keep in boxes or glasses. When flavoured with lemon, they are called lemon-acid drops; with otto of roses, rose-acid drops. The sticks are made in the same manner as the drops, without being cut into small pieces.
Oil a square or round tin with low edges; split some almonds and put in rows over the bottom, with the split side downward, until the surface is covered , boil some raw sugar to crack, and pour it over so as to cover the whole with a thin sheet of sugar. Coco-nut cut in thin slices, currant, and other candies, are made as the hardbake, except that the sugar is grained before it is poured over.
This is similar to nogat, and is made with raw sugar boiled to crack. Pour on an oiled stone, and fill with sweet almonds, either blanched or not; the almonds are mixed with the sugar by working them in with the hands, as you would mix anything into a piece of dough. If they were stirred into the sugar in the pan, it would grain, which is the reason why it is melted for nogat. Form the rock into a ball or roll, and make into a sheet about 2 in. thick, by rolling with a rolling-pin. The top may be divided into diamonds or squares by means of a long knife or piece of iron; when nearly cold, cut it into long narrow pieces with a strong knife or hammer.
Boil clarified loaf sugar to crack or caramel, using a little acid to prevent graining; pour out on a marble slab, which has been previously oiled or buttered. This is occasionally flavoured with lemons. When required, pour a few drops of essential oil of lemon in the centre, before the edges are folded over, then cut into narrow strips with a large pair of scissors or shears. When nearly cold, twist, put into glasses or tin boxes, and keep closed to prevent the access of air. It is seldom boiled higher than crack, and saffron is used to make it the colour of caramel.
Boil sugar as for the preceding. Spread finely powdered and sifted loaf sugar on a table or tea-tray, with a piece of stick round at the end; make several holes, into which run the sugar from a lipped pan; or drop on an oiled marble slab with a funnel, letting only one drop fall at a time; or from the lip pan, separating each drop with a small knife, or a straight piece of small wire. Take off the stone with a knife, mix with powdered loaf sugar, sift from it, and keep in glasses or tin boxes.
Spread sugar as for the last; have a piece of wood about 1 1/2 in. thick, with the surface divided into 1-in. squares 1/2 in. deep; with this form the impressions in the sugar, and fill with sugar boiled as for drops, flavouring with essence of lemon; or it may be poured out in a sheet on an oiled marble slab, as for barley sugar, and when nearly cold divided into pieces with a tin frame, having small square divisions, when the whole sheet may be divided at once by pressing hard on it so as to cut it nearly through. When cold, separate, and mix with powdered sugar; take out and fold separately in fancy or coloured papers, with a motto on each. They are also occasionally made into balls, thus - First cast the sugar in a sheet on an oiled marble slab; when the edges are set, fold them in the middle, then oil a small square tin with edges to it, put the sugar in this, and place under the fire-place of the stove so as to keep warm; cut off a piece and roll into a pipe, then cut into small pieces with a pair of shears, and let your assistant roll it into small balls under his hand on a sand-stone; marble is too smooth for this purpose. Lads who are used to it can turn 8 or 10 under each hand at one time.
When finished, put into powdered sugar, wrap in fancy papers fringed at the ends, put a motto in each, and fasten with small bands of gold paper. Sometimes a cracker is folded up in each; this is made with two narrow strips of stiff paper, a small piece of sand or glass paper pasted on the end of each, these are placed over each other with a little fulminating powder between, a piece of thin paper is bound round it, and pasted to keep them together; when these are pulled asunder, the two rough surfaces meeting cause the powder to explode, and out flies the ball of sugar with the motto.
These are made from' loaf sugar, boiled to crack, coloured with either cochineal or saffron, and finished the same as acidulated drops without being flattened.
' These are all made in the same way as raspberry, using the essential oil of each for flavour. For clove, the mixture, whilst boiling, is coloured with cochineal; ginger, with saffron; but the peppermint must be kept perfectly white, except the stripes, which is done by cutting off as many pieces from the bulk as you have colours, which should be in powder; put a sufficiency in each piece to give the desired tint, and keep warm. When the remaining portion of the sugar is pulled, lay them over the surface in narrow stripes, double the roll together, and the face each way will be alike. Pull out into long sticks, and twist; make round by rolling under the hand; or cut into small pieces with a pair of shears or scissors, for pellets, pincushions, etc.
Articles which have acid mixed with them are extremely liable to grain, when they are useless except to sell for broken pieces, as they cannot be boiled again unless the acid is extracted. The method of doing this is only returning to the first principle in the manufacture of sugar. When the juice is expressed from the sugar-canes, it contains a considerable quantity of acid, which must be destroyed before it will granulate into sugar; for this purpose, lime is employed, and has the desired effect; it will also in this case, but chalk or whiting is most generally used. First dissolve your acid sugar in water; when this is thoroughly accomplished, mix in a sufficient quantity of either of these alkaline powders to cause a strong effervescence; after it has subsided, pass through a flannel bag, according to the directions for clarifying sugar. The filtered syrup will be fit to use for any purpose, and may be boiled again to crack or caramel as well as if no acid had ever been mixed with it.
Let the pan it is dissolved in be capable of containing as much again as there is in it.
Take 2 lb. of sweet almonds, 1 lb. sugar. Blanch the almonds, cut in slices, dry at the mouth of a cool oven and slightly brown; powder the sugar, and put it into a stew pan, without water; place on the fire to melt, stirring with a spatula, until it becomes a fine brown; then mix in the almonds, and let them be well covered with the sugar; pour out on an oiled marble stone. It may be made into a thick or thin sheet, and cut with a knife into small pieces, such as dice, diamonds, etc. The surface may be strewed with currants, fillets of pistachios, or coarse sugar, and cut into different forms with tin cutters; it may also be formed into baskets, vases, etc. Oil the interior of a mould, and spread the nogat over, whilst warm, as thin and even as possible. To save the fingers from being burnt, it may be spread with a lemon. Detach from the mould when warm, and let remain until cold, that it may retain its shape perfectly, then fasten the different parts together with caramel sugar. For baskets, a handle of spun sugar may be placed over or ornamented with it.
These may be filled with whipped or other creams when required to be served.
This may be made from raw or refined sugar. Boil to crack, and colour with cochineal; pour it on a stone rubbed with a little oil or butter; cut off a small piece, and keep warm to stripe or case the other part, when finished; to the remainder add a little tartaric acid (not so much as for drops), and some raspberry-paste to flavour it. The residue of raspberries used for making vinegar, and preserved with an equal quantity of sugar, or even less, as for raspberry cakes, does very well for this purpose. Fold the edges over into the centre, and attach to a hook fixed against the wall; pull towards you, throwing it on the hook each time after having pulled out; continue until it gets white and shining; then make into a compact long roll, and either stripe with the piece cut off, or roll in a sheet with a rolling-pin, and wrap round so as to form a sort of case; then pull into long narrow sticks, and cut the required length.