It is also by far the most powerful as a deodorant.

Professor Beilstein, who has recently studied the various substances used for disinfection, arrives, in a communication made to the St. Petersburg Technical Society, at the following conclusions: - Sulphuric acid would be the best disinfectant if it did not destroy the sides of the tanks; the use of lime and salts of lime ought to be completely renounced, as they but temporarily destroy bacteria, and under some circumstances may contribute to their development, nor does sulphate of iron, even in a solution of 15 per cent., ultimately destroy bacteria, as they revive when put into a convenient medium. Therefore, Professor Beilstein recommends sulphate of aluminium, which is used in paper and printed cotton manufactures. The best means for providing it is to make a mixture of red clay with 4 per cent, of sulphuric acid, and to add to this mixture some carbolic acid for destroying the smell of the matter which is to be disinfected.

In the United States, paper impregnated with carbolic acid is used to wrap up meat sent to a distance, and protect it from the influence of the atmosphere. It is prepared by melting 5 parts stearine, in which 2 of carbolic acid are well stirred; 5 parts paraffin are then added to the mixture. The whole is stirred as it cools, and applied on the paper with a brush.

Professor Carlo Pavesi, of Italy, proposes as an improved disinfectant a solution composed of chloride of lime, camphor, and glycerine. This mixture is capable of being used in all cases in which carbolic acid is now employed, and its odour is less disagreeable, less irritating, and less toxic than that of the latter. It is said at once to arrest the putrefaction of animal bodies, and is highly commended by the London Medical Record.

A commission of the French Academy report that nitric oxide is a most potent disinfectant, being greatly superior to every other substance as regards its action on infectious germs. The gas is applied by mixing in a 2-gallon stoneware vessel 2 qt. water, 3 1/4 lb. ordinary commercial nitric acid, and 1/2 lb. copper turnings. The gas thus evolved is sufficient to disinfect a room containing 30 to 40 cub. yd.; the crevices in the doors and windows should be covered over with gummed paper to avoid loss of fumes, and their injurious action on the health; when 48 hours have elapsed, the doors are unsealed by a man protected by a suitable respirator, and the room is well ventilated.

Dougall finds that in power of coagulating albuminous substances, and hence preventing decomposition and germ growth, chromic acid is far superior to phenol; the comparative coagulating power of various antiseptics was found to be -

Chromic acid.....

1

Phenol (carbolic acid)

1/16

Nitric acid ... .

1/15

Corrosive sublimate ....

1/20

Chloralum......

1/150

etc. etc.

As a preventive of germ life, chromic acid exceeds phenol in nearly the same proportion. The power possessed by chromic acid of coagulating albumen, gelatine, etc, etc, renders these substances the best antidote that can be given in case of poisoning by chromic acid.

The employment of thymol as a substitute for carbolic acid in surgical dressings is a natural consequence of the discovery of its greater antiseptic and less septic power. A lecture on the subject has been published in Volk-mann's series by U. Ranke, of Halle. The solution used, instead of the 3 per cent, solution of carbolic acid, consists of 1 part thymol, 10 of alcohol, 20 of glycerine, and 1000 water, and can be employed as either a spray or a solution. An impregnated gauze is also used. Since thymol does not irritate the wound, the gauze may be laid directly upon it - otherwise the same method is employed as in Lister's plan. If the gauze becomes hard and dry, it may be moistened once or twice a day with thymol water. In order to prevent the evaporation of the thymol from the dressing, the gauze is covered with oiled paper. From an experience of 41 wounds dressed with thymol, the lecturer concluded that the method leaves nothing to be desired as to its antiseptic effect, and that it answers better than the carbolic acid dressing, since the secretion from the wound is less, the period of healing shorter, and the cost of the dressings is smaller.

Further, it has no poisonous properties, and eczema was never observed in its use. (Lancet) The following methods for smallpox disinfection are ordered by the Illinois State Board of Health. The best disinfectants are sunlight, fresh air, soap and water, thorough cleanliness, for general use. For special purposes the following are the most efficient, the simplest and the cheapest: - 1. Copperas disinfectant - Sulphate of iron (copperas), 1/2 lb.; water, 1 gal. A convenient way to prepare this is to suspend a basket containing about 60 lb. copperas in a barrel of water. The solution should be frequently and liberally used in cellars, privies, water-closets, gutters, sewers, cesspools, yards, stables, etc. 2. Sulphur disinfectants, - Roll sulphur (brimstone), 2 lb. to a room 10 ft. square, and in the same proportion for larger rooms. When using this, have all windows, fire-places, flues, key-holes, doors, and other openings securely closed by strips or sheets of paper pasted over them. Then place on the hearth or stove, or on bricks set in a wash-tub coutaining live coals, some sulphur.

All articles that cannot be burned, on account of their value, must be left in the room; while this fumigation must last for 24 hours, and may be repeated, when the doors and windows should be left open for 2 or 3 weeks. 3. Zinc disinfectants. - Sulphate of zinc (white vitriol), 1} lb.; common salt, lb.; water, 6 gal. Into this solution all clothing, blankets, sheets, towels, etc, should be dropped immediately after use, and should be well boiled as soon as practicable. Into this solution ought to be dipped the outer wrap of any visitor when he leaves the room. In the event of death the body should be wrapped in a sheet thoroughly saturated with this solution. 4. Thymol water. - Made by adding 1 teaspoonful spirits of thymol to 1/2 gal. water. Spirits of thymol is composed of 1 oz. thymol, 3 oz. alcohol 85 per cent. This may be used for the same disinfecting purposes as carbolic acid; it is quite as efficient, and has an agreeable odour. When thymol is not available, chloride of zinc solution may be used: 1/2 oz. chloride of zinc to 1 gal. water. (National Board of Health Bulletin.)