From a tincture of the root, made with rectified spirit. It is said to be 12 times as strong as the extract of the leaves.

(11) Saccharated

4 oz. extract of aconite, 1 oz. sugar of milk in powder; mix; dry the mass in a warm place, adding sugar of milk q.s. to make the whole equal in weight that of the extract used (4 oz.).

Aloes

- (1) 1 lb. Barbadoes aloes in small pieces, treated with 1 gal. boiling water for 12 hours, and the clear liquid evaporated.

(2) 1 lb. Socotrine aloes treated with 1 gal. boiling water for 12 hours, and the clear liquid evaporated to dryness.

(3) 4 oz. aloes (hepatic), 1 qt. water; boil till dissolved; when cold, decant the clear liquid and evaporate as before.

(4) Macerate powdered aloes in cold water for 48 hours, with frequent agitation, and then evaporate in a water bath at a temperature not exceeding 150° to 165° F. (65 1/2° to 74° C), until a pilular consistence is obtained.

(5) Dissolve 8 oz. extract of aloes in 32 oz. distilled water; gradually add 1 oz. sulphuric acid, and evaporate to a dry extract.

Angelica

(1) 2 oz. angelica root, 2 1/2 oz. rectified spirit, 9 oz. water; digest, strain, and evaporate.

(2) 2 lb. angelica root, 1 gal. rectified spirit; make a tincture; to the marc add 1 gal. proof spirit, and repeat the digestion; filter the two tinctures separately, mix, distil off the spirit, and evaporate.

Apples

Peel and reduce to pulp, 6 lb. unripe crab-apples; add 1 lb. iron wire in small coils; digest in a vapour bath for about a week, express, strain, decant, and evaporate in a porcelain vessel, with constant stirring, to. the consistence of a soft extract; dissolve the residue in 4 parts water, strain, and evaporate as before.

(2) Reduce 5 lb. unripe apples to a pulp, mix with cut straw, and press; add 1 1/2 oz. reduced iron to the strained juice after removal of the sediment; when this has dissolved, add as much water to the cooled liquid as will make up 4 3/4 lb.; filter, and reduce to a thick extract.

Belladonna

(1) Bruise 112 lb. fresh leaves and tender branches in a stone mortar, and press out the juice; proceed as in Aconite (1).

(2) Express the juice from the bruised fresh plant, sprinkle the marc with water, and again apply pressure; mix the expressed liquids, filter and evaporate the filtered liquor in a vapour bath to the consistence of an extract.

(3) The leaves are collected when the plant begins to flower. The expressed juice is allowed to stand for 24 hours, and the clear portion is decanted; the sediment is placed on a calico filter, washed with an equal bulk of cold water, and the filtrate mixed with expressed juice; the mixed liquid is heated in a water bath to coagulate its albumen, and after being skimmed and filtered through flannel whilst hot, the washed sediment is added, and the whole evaporated as before.

(4) The expressed juice is heated to the boiling point, filtered, and evaporated.

(5) The expressed juice is coagulated by heat cautiously applied, and filtered; the filtrate is reduced to the consistency of a syrup, and mixed with an equal volume of nearly anhydrous alcohol (say 90 per cent.); the clear portion is lastly evaporated as before.

Buchu

(1) Ethereo-Alcoholic

1 lb. buchu in coarse powder, 4 fl. oz. ether, 12 fl. oz. rectified spirit; percolate without digestion, adding dilate alcohol until a pint of ethereo-alcoholic tincture is obtained; suffer this to evaporate spontaneously; treat the residue in the displacer with dilute alcohol till 2 pints are obtained; evaporate to a syrup, add the product of the first tincture, mix, and complete the evaporation.

(2) 8 oz. buchu leaves, 16 fl. oz. rectified spirit, for a tincture by displacement, adding water until 12 fl. oz. have passed through; allow this to evaporate spontaneously until reduced to 1/2; next digest the mass in the percolator with 1 pint cold water for 12 hours; express a pint, and evaporate this to 10 fl. oz. of residual tincture; agitate together, and in a few days filter, or decant the clear portion.

Cainca

Put 10 oz. dried cainca root into a . percolator, pour on it enough proof spirit to penetrate the powder in every part, and let it remain 12 hours; allow the liquid to drain, and pass successively through the powder in the percolator as much proof spirit as will amount with that previously used to 6 oz.; distil off the spirit, and evaporate to a soft extract.

Calabar Bean

1 oz. Calabar bean in coarse powder, 5 oz. rectified . spirit; macerate the bean for 48 hours in J of the spirit in a closed vessel, agitating occasionally; transfer to a percolator, and when the fluid ceases to pass, add the remainder of the spirit, so that it may slowly penetrate through the powder; subject the residue of the bean to pressure, adding the pressed liquid to the product of the percolation; distil off the spirit, and evaporate what is left to the consistence of a soft extract by a water bath.

Calumba

1 oz. calumba cut small, 5 oz. water; macerate in 1/2 the water for 12 hours, strain, and press; macerate again with the remaining water, strain, and press; mix and filter the liquor, and evaporate with the heat of a water bath to pill consistency.

Wild Cherry Fluid

16 oz.wild cherry in fine powder, 4 oz. glycerine, 8 oz. water; mix the glycerine and the water, and digest the wild cherry in 8 oz. of the mixture for 4 days; pack in a percolator, and pour on the remaining 4 oz. glycerine and water; when this has disappeared from the surface, pour on rectified spirit (.817) until 12 oz. of fluid have been obtained, and set this portion aside. Then percolate with spirit until 20 oz. more have been obtained; evaporate to 4 oz., and mix with the reserved portion.

Cinchona

(1) 16 oz. yellow cinchona bark in coarse powder, sufficient distilled water, 1 oz. rectified spirit; macerate the bark in 40 oz. water for 24 hours, pack in a percolator, and add water until 240 oz. have passed through, or until the bark is exhausted; evaporate the liquor to 20 oz. at a temperature not exceeding 160° F. (71° C.); filter, and continue the evaporation to 3 oz., or until the sp. gr. of the liquid is 1.200; when cold, add the spirit gradually, constantly stirring.